Publications - South Africa

Change in Vitamin D levels occurs early after antiretroviral therapy initiation and depends on treatment regimen in resource-limited settings

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D...

Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa

Post Date: 
2013-07-29
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Countries: 
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Background : The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference...

Cost-utility of lateral-flow urine lipoarabinomannan for tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected African adults

Post Date: 
2013-04-15
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Countries: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting : In-patient hospitals in South Africa and Uganda. Objective : To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a lateral-flow urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test when added to existing strategies for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults (...

Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5253

Post Date: 
2013-04-15
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Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Background: Improved tuberculosis (TB) screening is urgently needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Methods: An observational, multi-country, cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients to compare a standardized diagnostic...

Performance characteristics of the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF test in a tuberculosis prevalence survey

Post Date: 
2012-08-15
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Countries: 
Publication: 
PLoS One
Background : Xpert MTB/RIF ("Xpert") is a molecular test for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. Performance characteristics have been established for its use during passive tuberculosis (TB) case detection in symptomatic TB suspects, but Xpert performance has not been...

Detection of microbial translocation in HIV and SIV infection using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay is masked by serum and plasma

Post Date: 
2012-08-01
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Objective: Microbial translocation (MT) is thought to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of HIV-related immune activation, and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is the principle measurement of this process. However, related research has been impeded by...

Longitudinal analysis of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: A prospective cohort study

Post Date: 
2011-10-31
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Countries: 
Publication: 
PLoS One
Background : QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) is a tool for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. However, interpretation and utility of serial QFT-GIT testing of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contacts is not well understood. We compared TB prevalence between baseline and 6 months follow-up...

Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy

Publication: 
New England Journal of Medicine
Background: Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. Methods: In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1–positive and the other was HIV-1–negative; 54...

Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a high HIV prevalence setting

Post Date: 
2009-10-01
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Countries: 
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
We evaluated the accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB diagnosis in South Africa.

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