Publications - HIV

Maternal syphilis: An independent risk factor for mother to infant human immunodeficiency virus transmission

Post Date: 
2017-06-15
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Abstract Syphilis is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus acquisition and sexual transmission; we examined impact on human immunodeficiency virus mother-to-child transmission among mother-infant pairs enrolled in the India Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine study. Maternal syphilis...

Presence of human hepegivirus-1 in a cohort of people who inject drugs

Post Date: 
2017-06-07
Publication: 
Annals of Internal Medicine
Findings on the sensitivity of next-generation metagenomic sequencing for discovery of new viral infections.

The impact of preexposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men: An individual-based model

Post Date: 
2017-06-01
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Objectives Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for preventing HIV infection among individuals at high risk, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Although its individual-level efficacy is proven, questions remain regarding population-level impact of PrEP implementation. Design We...

Design and implementation of a community health worker HIV treatment and prevention intervention in an HIV hot spot fishing community in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2017-05-22
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Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Abstract Innovative approaches are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in HIV hot spots. Here, we detail our design, training approach, and early implementation experiences of a community-based HIV intervention called "health scouts." The...

Prevalence of HIV testing provision at community organizations serving young people in a mid-Atlantic city, 2013-2014

Post Date: 
2017-03-31
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Public Health Reports
Objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing at community organizations or the organizational characteristics associated with testing. The objective of this study was to describe (1) the prevalence of HIV testing at community organizations serving...

Cost-effectiveness of CRAG-LFA screening for cryptococcal meningitis among people living with HIV in Uganda

Post Date: 
2017-03-23
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BMC Infectious Diseases
Background : Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) constitutes a significant source of mortality in resource-limited regions. Cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) can be detected in the blood before onset of meningitis. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of implementing CRAG screening using the recently...

High prevalence of cryptococcal antigenaemia amongst asymptomatic advanced HIV patients in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2017-03-21
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Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Methods : A prospective study was conducted in a large public sector ART centre and the inpatient wards of Sassoon Hospital, Pune, India. All consenting patients> 18 years of age with CD4 count <100 cells/mm3 were screened for CrAg by latex agglutination assay. Those with positive CrAg...

Vitamin A and D deficiencies associated with incident tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in multinational case-cohort study

Post Date: 
2017-02-06
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Introduction: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized. Methods: We...

¡Sólo se vive una vez! (you only live once): a pilot evaluation of individually tailored video modules aiming to increase HIV testing among foreign-born Latino men

Post Date: 
2017-02-01
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
BACKGROUND: Although Latinos living in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV, the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV prevention, testing, and linkage to care interventions lag behind efforts occurring in other communities. To address sociocultural barriers to...

Tuberculosis associated with HIV infection

Post Date: 
2017-01-15
Publication: 
Microbiology Spectrum
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) has recently surpassed HIV as the primary infectious disease killer worldwide, but the two diseases continue to display lethal synergy. The burden of TB is disproportionately borne by people living with HIV, particularly where HIV and poverty coexist. The impact of these...

Qualitative insights into implementation, processes, and outcomes of a randomized trial on peer support and HIV care engagement in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2017-01-10
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BMC Infectious Diseases
BACKGROUND: People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) can benefit from being engaged in care and utilizing preventive interventions. Community-based peer support may be an effective approach to promote these important HIV services...

The socioecology of sexual and reproductive health care use among young urban minority males

Post Date: 
2017-01-05
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Journal of Adolescent Health
Purpose: To explore perceptions of facilitators/barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care use among an urban sample of African-American and Hispanic young men aged 15-24 years, including sexual minorities. Methods: Focus groups were conducted between April 2013 and May 2014 in one mid-...

Sex-related differences in inflammatory and immune activation markers before and after combined antiretroviral therapy initiation

Post Date: 
2016-10-01
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Women progress to death at the same rate as men despite lower plasma HIV RNA (viral load). We investigated sex-specific differences in immune activation and inflammation as a potential explanation. Methods: Inflammatory and immune activation markers [interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor...

Efficacy of six-week extended-dose nevirapine varies by infant birth weight with greatest relative efficacy in low birth weight infants

Post Date: 
2016-09-30
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PLOS One
Low birth weight (LBW), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as birth weight less than 2500 g, is a significant public health issue in resource-limited settings, particularly in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia where the estimated annual incidence is 14% and 28–31%, respectively,...

HIV-related stigma among Spanish speaking Latinos in an emerging immigrant receiving city

Post Date: 
2016-09-27
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Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
HIV-related stigma has been associated with a reluctance to test for HIV among Latinos . This study assessed community HIV-related stigma within an emerging Latino immigrant receiving city . We conducted a brief survey among a convenience sample of 312 Spanish - speaking Latinos in Baltimore,...

Continued importance of sexually transmitted disease clinics in the era of the Affordable Care Act

Post Date: 
2016-09-15
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American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Introduction: Following the 2014 expansions of Medicaid and private health insurance through the Affordable Care Act, municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics-which have historically served predominantly uninsured patients-have been threatened with budget cuts nationwide. This study was...

Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in HIV-positive adults

Post Date: 
2016-08-16
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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Background: Rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health priority. HIV-associated TB may have different clinical presentations and is challenging to diagnose. Conventional sputum tests have reduced sensitivity in HIV-positive...

Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in agrarian, trading, and fishing communities in Rakai, Uganda: an observational epidemiological study

Post Date: 
2016-08-15
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The Lancet HIV
Background : Understanding the extent to which HIV burden differs across communities and the drivers of local disparities is crucial for an effective and targeted HIV response. We assessed community-level variations in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and treatment and prevention service uptake in...

Community-based interventions to improve and sustain antiretroviral therapy adherence, retention in HIV care and clinical outcomes in low- and middle-income countries for achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets

Post Date: 
2016-07-30
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Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Little is known about the effect of community versus health facility-based interventions to improve and sustain antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, virologic suppression, and retention in care among HIV-infected individuals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We systematically searched...

Continued elevation of interleukin-18 and interferon-γ after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and clinical failure in a diverse multicountry human immunodeficiency virus cohort

Post Date: 
2016-07-27
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Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Background: We assessed immune activation after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to understand clinical failure in diverse settings. Methods: We performed a case-control study in ACTG Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (PEARLS). Cases were defined as...

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