Publications - HIV

Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in HIV: evidence from a clinical cohort in Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
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Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Objective: To delineate the association between baseline socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) in urban Uganda. Design: Retrospective cohort study nested in an antiretroviral...

Change in Vitamin D levels occurs early after antiretroviral therapy initiation and depends on treatment regimen in resource-limited settings

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D levels,...

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
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Publication: 
Vaccine
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

Field evaluation of PIMA point-of-care CD4 testing in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-03-10
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Objective: To assess the accuracy of PIMA Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 testing in rural Rakai, Uganda. Methods: 903 HIV positive persons attending field clinics provided a venous blood sample assessed on site using PIMA analyzers per manufacturer's specifications. The venous samples were then run on...

The role of viral introductions in sustaining community-based HIV epidemics in rural Uganda: evidence from spatial clustering, phylogenics, and egocentric transmission models

Post Date: 
2014-03-04
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities—home to two-thirds of the African population—is driven by intra-community...

Mortality and long-term virologic outcomes in children and infants treated with lopinavir/ritonavir

Post Date: 
2013-12-15
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Publication: 
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Background: There is scant data on young children receiving protease inhibitor-based therapy in real-life resource-limited settings and on the optimal timing of therapy among children who survive infancy. Our aim was to evaluate outcomes at the Hospital del Niño, Panama, where children have been...

Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-11-28
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Publication: 
AIDS
Objective : Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people...

The Exposure Assessment in current time (EXACT) study: implementation, feasibility and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users

Post Date: 
2013-11-06
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Publication: 
AIDS Research and Treatment
Objective: We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants...

HIV/AIDS education in traditional Indian systems of medicine: faculty perspectives

Post Date: 
2013-10-24
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Publication: 
Journal of Traditional Medicine and and Clinical Naturopathy
In India, HIV-infected individuals face numerous challenges in their search for treatments. Currently, western allopathic medicine (hereinafter ‘biomedicine’) offers antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS and associated co-morbidities that have prolonged survival and improved quality of...

A qualitative study of barriers to enrollment into free HIV care: perspectives of never-in-care HIV-positive patients and providers in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-07-23
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Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Background: Early entry into HIV care is low in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Rakai, about a third (31.5%) of HIV-positive clients who knew their serostatus did not enroll into free care services. This qualitative study explored barriers to entry into care from HIV-positive clients who had never enrolled...

Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5253

Post Date: 
2013-04-15
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Background: Improved tuberculosis (TB) screening is urgently needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Methods: An observational, multi-country, cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients to compare a standardized diagnostic evaluation (SDE) for TB with standard of care (...

Cost-utility of lateral-flow urine lipoarabinomannan for tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected African adults

Post Date: 
2013-04-15
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting : In-patient hospitals in South Africa and Uganda. Objective : To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a lateral-flow urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test when added to existing strategies for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in human immunodeficiency virus infected adults (CD4(+) T-cell counts...

Changes in HIV-1 subtypes B and C genital tract RNA in women and men after initiation of antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2013-03-26
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Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1...

Correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among participants enrolled in a cohort study in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2013-03-15
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Publication: 
International Health
Background: Optimum comprehension of informed consent by research participants is essential yet challenging. This study explored correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among 1334 participants of a cohort study aimed at estimating HIV incidence in Pune, India. Methods: As part of the...

Combination implementation for HIV prevention: moving from evidence to population-level impact

Post Date: 
2013-01-15
Publication: 
The Lancet Infectious Disease
The promise of combination HIV prevention-the application of multiple HIV prevention interventions to maximise population-level effects-has never been greater. However, to succeed in achieving significant reductions in HIV incidence, an additional concept needs to be considered: combination...

Household-based HIV counseling and testing as a platform for referral to HIV care and medical male circumcision in Uganda: a pilot evaluation

Post Date: 
2012-12-13
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Combination HIV prevention initiatives incorporate evidence-based, biomedical and behavioral interventions appropriate and acceptable to specific populations, aiming to significantly reduce population-level HIV incidence. Knowledge of HIV serostatus is key to linkages to HIV care...

Growth patterns among HIV-exposed infants receiving nevirapine prophylaxis in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2012-10-31
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Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Background: India has among the highest rates of infant malnutrition. Few studies investigating the growth patterns of HIV-exposed infants in India or the impact of timing of HIV infection on growth in settings such as India exist. Methods: We used data from the Six Week Extended Nevirapine (SWEN)...

A novel educational strategy targeting health care workers in underserved communities in Central America to integrate HIV into primary medical care

Post Date: 
2012-10-24
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Publication: 
PLOS
Background: Current educational strategies to integrate HIV care into primary medical care in Central America have traditionally targeted managers or higher-level officials, rather than local health care workers (HCWs). We developed a complementary online and on-site interactive training...

Pooled individual data analysis of five randomized trials of infant nevirapine prophylaxis to prevent breast-milk HIV-1 transmission

Post Date: 
2012-10-19
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Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: In resource-limited settings, mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) face a difficult choice: breastfeed their infants but risk transmitting HIV-1 or not breastfeed their infants and risk the infants dying of other infectious diseases or malnutrition. Recent...

Evaluation of a multimodal, distance learning HIV management course for clinical care providers in India

Post Date: 
2012-10-01
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Publication: 
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Distance learning is an important tool for training HIV health workers. However, there is limited evidence on design and evaluation of distance learning HIV curricula and tools. We therefore designed, implemented, and evaluated a distance learning course on HIV management for clinical care...

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