Publications - HIV

Mortality in HIV infected individuals in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-04-15
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Publication: 
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Background & Objectives: With the presence of HIV epidemic for more than two decades in India, rise in the number of HIV related deaths is expected. Data on mortality in HIV infected individuals from prospective studies are scanty in India. We report here data on mortality in a systematically...

Mixed methods evaluation of an international internet-based continuing medical education course for pediatric HIV providers in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-04-09
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Publication: 
Education for Health
Context: Studies of HIV care in Pune, a high-HIV-prevalence city in India, have shown that a significant proportion of practitioners were not adhering to national guidelines due to inadequate awareness and understanding. Objectives: This study examined the effectiveness of a pilot Internet-based...

Twelve month follow-up of the SWEN randomized controlled trials: Differential impact of extended-dose nevirapine on mother-to-child transmission and infant death by maternal CD4 cell count

Post Date: 
2011-03-27
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Publication: 
AIDS Care
Objectives: We previously reported combined analysis of 6-week and 6-month endpoints of three randomized controlled trials [Six Week Extended Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) trials] that compared extended-dose nevirapine through 6 weeks of age to single-dose nevirapine to prevent HIV transmission via...

Predictors of retention among men attending STI clinics in HIV prevention programs and research: A case control study in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-03-11
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Retention is critical in HIV prevention programs and clinical research. We studied retention in the three modeled scenarios of primary prevention programs, cohort studies and clinical trials to identify predictors of retention. Methodology/Principal Findings: Men attending Sexually...

Maternal tuberculosis: a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus

Post Date: 
2011-02-01
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Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established...

Predictors of HIV testing among Latinos in Baltimore City

Post Date: 
2010-12-15
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Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
To better understand access to HIV testing and prevention services experienced by Latinos, we evaluated data compiled through Baltimore City Health Department HIV outreach efforts in 2008. Of 6,443 clients served, Latinos were more likely male, young, and less-educated than non-Latinos. A greater...

Gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing rates of HIV-infected men: low despute guidelines

Post Date: 
2010-11-15
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Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Objectives: Screening HIV-infected men for gonorrhea (GC) and Chlamydia (CT) may decrease HIV transmission and reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in female partners. This study determined GC/CT testing rates in a clinical HIV cohort before and after 2003 when the U.S. Centers for...

Stigmatizing attitudes and low levels of knowledge but high willingness to participate in HIV management: A community based survey of pharmacies in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2010-08-27
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Publication: 
BMC Public Health
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the role of pharmacists in low-income settings be expanded to address the increasing complexity of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) and co-infection drug regimens. However, in many such settings including in India, many pharmacists and...

Unique aspects of the care of HIV-positive Latino patients living in the United States

Post Date: 
2010-08-15
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Publication: 
Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Latinos are disproportionately affected by HIV, with a higher risk of infection and a delayed presentation to care as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Over the last decade many Latinos, especially foreign-born migrants, have settled in regions of the country with historically low Latino...

Antiretroviral regimens for patients with HIV who fail first-line antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2010-06-16
Publication: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced the morbidity and mortality of patients with HIV/AIDS. A common first-line ART regimen in low-resource settings includes a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs...

Effect of peer health workers on AIDS care in Rakai, Uganda: a cluster-randomized trial

Post Date: 
2010-06-02
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Publication: 
PLOS
Background: Human resource limitations are a challenge to the delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-resource settings. We conducted a cluster randomized trial to assess the effect of community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care of adults in Rakai, Uganda. ...

Developing WHO guidelines with pragmatic, structured, evidence-based processes: a case study

Post Date: 
2010-05-15
Publication: 
Global Public Health
Many guidelines, including those produced by the World Health Organisation (WHO), have failed to adhere to rigorous methodological standards. Operational examples of guideline development processes may provide important lessons learned to improve the rigour and quality of future guidelines. To this...

Optimal monitoring strategies for guiding when to switch first-line antiretroviral therapy regimens for treatment failure among adults and adolescents living with HIV in low-resource settings

Post Date: 
2010-04-14
Publication: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Background: One of the critical clinical decisions made in antiretroviral therapy (ART) is when to switch from an initial regimen to another due to treatment failure. This complex process requires consideration of multiple factors including: (1) what type of monitoring (e.g. clinical, immunologic,...

Physician estimate of antiretroviral adherence: poor correlation with patient self-report and viral load

Post Date: 
2010-03-15
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Publication: 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is critical in maintaining viral suppression and minimizing resistance in HIV-infected patients. We compared physician estimates of their patients' ART adherence with participant's self-reported adherence to determine patient-provider agreement and identify...

Sexually transmitted infection prevalence and behavioral risk factors among Latino and non-Latino patients attending the Baltimore City STD clinics

Post Date: 
2010-03-15
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Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Background: Many studies have evaluated factors influencing STD/HIV disparities between African-American and white populations, but fewer have explicitly included Latinos for comparison. Methods: We analyzed demographic and behavioral data captured in electronic medical records of patients first...

One-, two-, and three-class resistance among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in private care clinics: Mumbai, India

Post Date: 
2010-01-26
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Publication: 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) in India are not all adequately virally suppressed. We analyzed ARV drug resistance in adults receiving ART in three private clinics in Mumbai, India. HIV viral load was measured in 200 patients with the Roche AMPLICOR HIV-1 Monitor...

Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a high HIV prevalence setting

Post Date: 
2009-10-01
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Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
We evaluated the accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB diagnosis in South Africa.

Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomized controlled trials

Post Date: 
2009-07-26
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Publication: 
The Lancet
Background: UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was to...

Strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India

Post Date: 
2009-05-15
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Publication: 
Health Policy and Planning
The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we adapt...

Highly complex neutralization determinants on a monophyletic lineage of newly transmitted subtype C HIV-1 Env clones from India

Post Date: 
2009-03-15
Publication: 
Virology
Little is known about the neutralization properties of HIV-1 in India to optimally design and test vaccines. For this reason, a functional Env clone was obtained from each of ten newly acquired, heterosexually transmitted HIV-1 infections in Pune, Maharashtra. These clones formed a phylogenetically...

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