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Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomized controlled trials
Background: UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was to assess whether daily nevirapine given to breastfed infants through 6 weeks of age can decrease HIV transmission via breastfeeding.
Methods: HIV-infected women breastfeeding their infants were eligible for participation. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either single-dose nevirapine (nevirapine 200 mg to women in labour and nevirapine 2 mg/kg to newborns after birth) or 6 week extended-dose nevirapine (nevirapine 200 mg to women in labour and nevirapine 2 mg/kg to newborn babies after birth plus nevirapine 5 mg daily from days 8-42 for the infant). The randomisation sequences were generated by computer at a central data coordinating centre. The primary endpoint was HIV infection at 6 months of age in infants who were HIV PCR negative at birth. Analyses were by modified intention to treat, excluding infants with missing specimens and those with indeterminate or confirmed HIV infection at birth. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00074399, NCT00061321, and NCT00639938.
Six Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) Study Team, Bedri A, Gudetta B, Isehak A, Kumbi S, Lulseged S, Mengistu Y, Bhore AV, Bhosale R, Varadhrajan V, Gupte N, Sastry J, Suryavanshi N, Tripathy S, Mmiro F, Mubiru M, Onyango C, Taylor A, Musoke P, Nakabiito C, Abashawl A, Adamu R, Antelman G, Bollinger RC, Bright P, Chaudhary MA, Coberly J, Guay L, Fowler MG, Gupta A, Hassen E, Jackson JB, Moulton LH, Nayak U, Omer SB, Propper L, Ram M, Rexroad V, Ruff AJ, Shankar A, Zwerski S. Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomized controlled trials. Lancet. 2008 July 26; 372(9635):300-313. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61114-9.