The Impact of Hypertension and Use of Calcium Channel Blockers on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes

Post Date: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases

Background: Hypertension induces systemic inflammation, but its impact on the outcome of infectious diseases like tuberculosis (TB) is unknown. Calcium channel blockers (CCB) improve TB treatment outcomes in pre-clinical models, but their effect in patients with TB remain unclear.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study, including all patients > 18 years receiving treatment for culture-confirmed, drug-sensitive TB from 2000 to 2016 at the National Taiwan University Hospital, assessed the association of hypertension and CCB use with all-cause and infection-related mortality during the first 9 months of TB treatment, as well as sputum-smear microscopy and sputum-culture positivity at 2 and 6 months.

Results: 1052 of the 2894 patients (36.4%) had hypertension. Multivariable analysis revealed that hypertension was associated with increased mortality due to all causes (HR 1.57, 95% confidence interval[CI], 1.23-1.99) and infections (HR 1.87, 95%CI, 1.34-2.6), but there was no statistical difference in microbiological outcomes when stratified based on hypertensive group. Dihydropyridine-CCB (DHP-CCB) use was associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR 0.67, 95%CI: 0.45-0.98) only by univariate Cox regression. There was no association between DHP-CCB use and infection-related mortality (HR 0.78, 95%CI: 0.46-1.34) or microbiological outcomes in univariate or multivariate regression analyses.

Conclusions: Patients with hypertension have increased all-cause mortality and infection-related mortality during the 9 months following TB treatment initiation. DHP-CCB use may lower all-cause mortality in TB patients with hypertension. The presence of hypertension or the use of CCB did not result in a significant change in microbiological outcomes.

Chidambaram V, Gupte A, Wang JY, Golub JE, Karakousis PC. The Impact of Hypertension and Use of Calcium Channel Blockers on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Sep 24:ciaa1446. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa1446. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32971534.