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Longitudinal analysis of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: A prospective cohort study
Background: QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) is a tool for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. However, interpretation and utility of serial QFT-GIT testing of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contacts is not well understood. We compared TB prevalence between baseline and 6 months follow-up using QFT-GIT and tuberculin skin testing (TST) in children who were household contacts of adults with pulmonary TB in South Africa, and explored factors associated with QFT-GIT conversions and reversions.
Method: Prospective study with six month longitudinal follow-up.
Results: Among 270 enrolled pediatric contacts, 196 (73%) underwent 6-month follow-up testing. The 6-month prevalence estimate of MTB infection in pediatric contacts increased significantly from a baseline of 29% (79/270, 95%CI [24-35]) to 38% (103/270, 95% CI [32-44], p<0.001) using QFT-GIT; prevalence increased from a baseline of 28% (71/254, 95%CI [23-34]) to 33% (88/263, 95%CI [21-32], p = 0.002) using TST. Prevalence estimates were influenced by thresholds for positivity for TST, but not for QFT-GIT. Among 134 children with a negative or indeterminate baseline QFT-GIT, 24 (18%) converted to positive at follow-up; conversion rates did not differ significantly when using more stringent thresholds to define QFT-GIT conversion. Older age >10 years (AOR 8.9 95%CI [1.1-72]) and baseline TST positivity ≥5 mm (AOR 5.2 95%CI [1.2-23]) were associated with QFT-GIT conversion. Among 62 children with a positive baseline QFT-GIT, 9 (15%) reverted to negative; female gender (AOR 18.5 95%CI [1.1-321]; p = 0.04] was associated with reversion, while children with baseline positive TST were less likely to have QFT-GIT reversion (AOR 0.01 95%CI [0.001-0.24]).
Conclusion: Among pediatric contacts of adult household TB cases in South Africa, prevalence estimates of TB infection increased significantly from baseline to 6 months. Conversions and reversions occurred among pediatric TB contacts using QFT-GIT, but QFT-GIT conversion rates were less influenced by thresholds used for conversions than were TST conversion rates.
Shah M, Kasambira T, Adrian P, Hoshouser M, Madhi S, Martinson N, Dorman S. Longitudinal analysis of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: A prospective cohort study. PLoS One. 2011 Oct 31. PMID: 22066009 PMCID: PMC3204993 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026787