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Male circumcision and antiviral drugs appear to sharply reduce HIV infection rate
. . . The current study, based on RCCS data on 34,000 adults enrolled and followed between 1989 and 2016, confirmed the widespread adoption of many of PEPFAR's HIV prevention measures. The use of antiretroviral therapy among infected people rose steadily from 12 percent in the 2006 survey to 69 percent in 2016. The proportion of circumcised men nearly quadrupled from about 15 percent in 1999 to 59 percent in 2016. The proportion of HIV-infected people in whom the amount of virus in their blood (viral load) fell to near zero (at which point transmission is virtually stopped) rose from 42 percent in 2009 to 75 percent in 2016. Evidence of behavioral changes was weaker—the rate of condom use did not rise, for example—but during the study period younger people in the cohort appeared to become much less likely to initiate sex. . . .