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Sources of household air pollution and their association with fine particulate matter in low-income urban homes in India
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology
Household air pollution (HAP) is poorly characterized in low-income urban Indian communities.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A questionnaire assessing sources of HAP and 24 h household concentrations of particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) were collected in a sample of low-income homes in Pune, India.
In 166 homes, the median 24 h average concentration of PM2.5 was 167 μg/m3 (IQR: 106-294). Although kerosene and wood use were highly prevalent (22% and 25% of homes, respectively), primarily as secondary fuel sources, high PM2.5 concentrations were also found in 95 (57%) homes reporting LPG use alone (mean 141 μg/m3; IQR: 92-209). In adjusted linear regression, log PM2.5 concentration was positively associated with wood cooking fuel (GMR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.0), mosquito coils (GMR 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), and winter season (GMR 1.7, 95% CI: 1.4-2.2). Households in the highest quartile of exposure were positively associated with wood cooking fuel (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), incense (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 1.0-1.3), mosquito coils (OR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6), and winter season (OR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.4).
We observed high concentrations of PM2.5 and identified associated determinants in urban Indian homes.
Elf JL, Kinikar A, Khadse S, Mave V, Suryavanshi N, Gupte N, Kulkarni V, Patekar S, Raichur P, Breysse PN, Gupta A, Golub JE. Sources of household air pollution and their association with fine particulate matter in low-income urban homes in India. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2018 Jun;28(4):400-410. doi: 10.1038/s41370-018-0024-2. Epub 2018 May 23. PMID: 29789668 PMCID: PMC6013356