Peru

Vitamin A and D deficiencies associated with incident tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in multinational case-cohort study

Post Date: 
2017-02-06
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Introduction: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized. Methods: We...

Pulmonary and Functional Status of Patients with Pulmonary Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Post-treatment in Lima, Peru

Post Date: 
2014-01-01
Country: 
To conduct a longitudinal study evaluating the hypothesis that pulmonary function and functional status (functional capacity and quality of life) is reduced among individuals previously treated for pulmonary tuberculosis compared to those without a history of tuberculosis.

Sex-related differences in inflammatory and immune activation markers before and after combined antiretroviral therapy initiation

Post Date: 
2016-10-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Women progress to death at the same rate as men despite lower plasma HIV RNA (viral load). We investigated sex-specific differences in immune activation and inflammation as a potential explanation. Methods: Inflammatory and immune activation markers [interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor...

Soluble CD14: An independent biomarker for risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission in setting of pre- and post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis

Post Date: 
2015-10-06
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elevated soluble CD14 (sCD14) concentrations, a marker of monocyte activation, predicts adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. To examine the association of sCD14 concentrations with the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, we nested a case-control...

Detection of microbial translocation in HIV and SIV infection using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay is masked by serum and plasma

Post Date: 
2012-08-01
Publication: 
PLOS One
Objective: Microbial translocation (MT) is thought to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of HIV-related immune activation, and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is the principle measurement of this process. However, related research has been impeded by...

Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5253

Post Date: 
2013-04-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Background: Improved tuberculosis (TB) screening is urgently needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Methods: An observational, multi-country, cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients to compare a standardized diagnostic evaluation (SDE) for TB with standard of care (...

Change in Vitamin D levels occurs early after antiretroviral therapy initiation and depends on treatment regimen in resource-limited settings

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D levels,...

25-Hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency and deficiency is associated with HIV disease progression and virological failure post-antiretroviral therapy initiation in diverse multinational settings

Post Date: 
2014-07-15
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with increased HIV mortality, but prospective studies assessing treatment outcomes after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation in resource-limited settings are lacking. Methods: A case-cohort study (N = 411) was nested...

Pre-antiretroviral therapy selenium status predicts WHO stages 3, 4 or death but not virologic failure post-antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2014-11-13
Publication: 
Nutrients
A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS)), was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus...

Prevalence and risk factors of micronutrient deficiencies pre- and post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) among a diverse multicountry cohort of HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2016-02-10
Publication: 
Clinical Nutrition
Background & Aims: HIV-infected adults have increased risk of several individual micronutrient deficiencies. However, the prevalence and risk factors of concurrent and multiple micronutrient deficiencies and whether micronutrient concentrations change after antiretroviral therapy (ART)...

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