South Africa

miLINC: MDR-TB South Africa - Patient Linkage to and Retention in Care

Post Date: 
2014-10-06
Country: 
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in southern Africa. Drug-resistant TB remains a growing threat to public health despite advances made in diagnosis and...

A5288: MULTIOCTAVE, Management Using the Latest Technologies in Resource-limited Settings to Optimize Combination Therapy After Viral Failure

Post Date: 
2012-07-16
The study is being done to test a strategy of using a resistance test to choose anti-HIV drugs. Resistance tests look at the HIV in your blood to see which drugs might work best to lower your HIV infection. see how well combinations of new anti-HIV drugs work to lower HIV infection see if taking...

A5290: A Randomized, Phase 2b Study of a Double-Dose Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Regimen with Rifampin-Based Tuberculosis Treatment versus a Standard-Dose Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Regimen with Rifabutin-Based Tuberculosis...

Post Date: 
2012-05-18
Full Title: A5290, A Randomized, Phase 2b Study of a Double-Dose Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Regimen with Rifampin-Based Tuberculosis Treatment versus a Standard-Dose Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Regimen with Rifabutin-Based Tuberculosis Treatment with or without...

A5273: Multicenter Study of Options for Second-Line Effective Combination Therapy (SELECT)

Post Date: 
2011-05-12
The study is being done with people who are taking their first anti-HIV drug regimen (including an Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NNRTI), a type of anti-HIV drug) but the drugs in this regimen are not doing a good job of fighting their HIV infection. The main purpose of this study...

A5282: A Randomized, Phase II Trial to Compare an HPV Test-and-Treat Strategy to a Cytology-Based Strategy for Prevention of CIN 2+ in HIV-Infected Women

Post Date: 
2011-03-15
The investigators are looking for a better way to prevent cervical cancer. This study is comparing two different methods to prevent cancer of the cervix in women who have HIV. This study will also see if these methods are safe and tolerable in women who have HIV.

P1073: Study of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) for International Sites Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Infants and Children < 72 Months of Age

Post Date: 
2010-11-15
P1073 is a case controlled prospective, clinical, observational and pathogenesis study of HIV-infected infants and children (≥ 4 weeks to < 72 months of age) at international IMPAACT sites who are within 1 week of HAART initiation and if ≤ 12 months of age have had prior BCG immunization. The...

P1077BF: Breastfeeding Version of the PROMISE Study (Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Everywhere)

Post Date: 
2010-02-02
1077BF is a randomized strategy trial, which is part of the PROMISE studies (1077BF, 1077FF, P1084s, and 1077HS). The Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Everywhere (PROMISE) Protocol is a research protocol of the IMPAACT network designed to address in an integrated and comprehensive fashion...

P1077FF: Formula Feeding Version of the PROMISE Study (Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Everywhere)

Post Date: 
2010-02-02
1077FF is a randomized strategy trial, which is part of the PROMISE studies (1077BF, 1077FF, P1084s, and 1077HS). The Promoting Maternal and Infant Survival Everywhere (PROMISE) Protocol is a research protocol of the IMPAACT network designed to address in an integrated and comprehensive fashion...

A5225: Phase I/II Dose-Finding Study of High-Dose Fluconazole Treatment in AIDS-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

Post Date: 
2009-04-22
A5225/HiFLAC is a Phase I/II dose escalation and validation study of the safety, tolerability, and therapeutic effect of an induction-consolidation strategy of high-dose fluconazole alone for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in HIV-infected participants.

P1070: Dose-Finding and Pharmacogenetic Study of Efavirenz in HIV-Infected and HIV/TB Co-Infected Infants and Children ≥ 3 Months to < 36 Months of Age

Post Date: 
2008-12-05
Efavirenz (EFV) is an anti-HIV medicine that is commonly used to treat HIV infection in adults and children older than 3 years of age. This study is being conducted to look at the safety of EFV, blood levels of EFV, genetic factors that may affect blood levels of EFV, and how easy it is for infants...

P1060: Phase II, parallel, randomized, clinical trials comparing the responses to initiation of NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected infants who have not previously received Single dose Nevirapine for prevention of Mother-to-child HIV...

Post Date: 
2006-03-27
A single dose of nevirapine (SD NVP) given to an HIV infected pregnant woman followed by a single dose to her infant has been shown to be an effective way of reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a non-...

Vitamin A and D deficiencies associated with incident tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in multinational case-cohort study

Post Date: 
2017-02-06
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Introduction: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized. Methods: We...

Sex-related differences in inflammatory and immune activation markers before and after combined antiretroviral therapy initiation

Post Date: 
2016-10-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Women progress to death at the same rate as men despite lower plasma HIV RNA (viral load). We investigated sex-specific differences in immune activation and inflammation as a potential explanation. Methods: Inflammatory and immune activation markers [interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor...

Inflammation and change in body weight with antiretroviral therapy initiation in a multinational cohort of HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2016-04-01
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Both wasting and obesity are associated with inflammation, but the extent to which body weight changes influence inflammation during human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods: Among a random virologically suppressed participants of the Prospective Evaluation of...

Persistently elevated C-reactive protein level in the first year of antiretroviral therapy, despite virologic suppression, is associated with HIV disease progression in resource-constrained settings

Post Date: 
2016-04-01
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
A case-cohort analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was performed within a multicountry randomized trial (PEARLS) to assess the prevalence of persistently elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, based on serial measurements of...

Empirical tuberculosis therapy versus isoniazid in adult outpatients with advanced HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy (REMEMBER): a multicountry open-label randomised controlled trial

Post Date: 
2016-03-19
Publication: 
The Lancet
Background: Mortality within the first 6 months after initiating antiretroviral therapy is common in resource-limited settings and is often due to tuberculosis in patients with advanced HIV disease. Isoniazid preventive therapy is recommended in HIV-positive adults, but subclinical tuberculosis can...

Low Vitamin-D levels combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J host variants is strongly associated with tuberculosis and death in HIV-infected and -exposed infants

Post Date: 
2016-02-12
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: This study examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and specific host genetic variants that affect vitamin D levels or its effects on immune function, with the risk of TB or mortality in children. Methods: A case-cohort sample of 466 South African infants enrolled in P1041 trial...

Prevalence and risk factors of micronutrient deficiencies pre- and post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) among a diverse multicountry cohort of HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2016-02-10
Publication: 
Clinical Nutrition
Background & Aims: HIV-infected adults have increased risk of several individual micronutrient deficiencies. However, the prevalence and risk factors of concurrent and multiple micronutrient deficiencies and whether micronutrient concentrations change after antiretroviral therapy (ART)...

Pediatric tuberculous meningitis: model-based approach to determining optimal doses of anti-tuberculosis drugs for children

Post Date: 
2015-10-22
Publication: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Standard treatment includes isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Current rifampin dosing achieves low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, and CSF penetration of ethambutol is poor. In adult trials,...

Soluble CD14: An independent biomarker for risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission in setting of pre- and post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis

Post Date: 
2015-10-06
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elevated soluble CD14 (sCD14) concentrations, a marker of monocyte activation, predicts adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. To examine the association of sCD14 concentrations with the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, we nested a case-control...

Pre-cART elevation of CRP and CD4+ T-cell immune activation associated with HIV clinical progression in a multinational case-cohort study

Post Date: 
2015-10-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a subset of HIV-infected patients who initiate cART develop early clinical progression to AIDS; therefore, some cART initiators are not fully benefitted by cART. Immune activation pre-cART may predict clinical progression...

Concurrent anemia and elevated CRP predicts HIV clinical treatment failure, including TB, post-antiretroviral therapy initiation

Post Date: 
2015-07-01
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: Anemia is a known risk factor for clinical failure following antiretroviral therapy (ART). Notably, anemia and inflammation are interrelated, and recent studies have associated elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammation marker, with adverse human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

Efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected persons receiving rifapentine and isoniazid for tuberculosis prevention

Post Date: 
2015-06-16
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: Concomitant use of rifamycins to treat or prevent tuberculosis can result in subtherapeutic concentrations of antiretroviral drugs. We studied the interaction of efavirenz with daily rifapentine and isoniazid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving a 4-week...

C-reactive protein (CRP), interferon gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are associated with risk of tuberculosis after initiation of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings

Post Date: 
2015-02-26
Publication: 
PLOS One
Objective: The association between pre-antiretroviral (ART) inflammation and immune activation and risk for incident tuberculosis (TB) after ART initiation among adults is uncertain. Design: Nested case-control study (n = 332) within ACTG PEARLS trial of three ART regimens among 1571 HIV-infected,...

Implementing a large scale systematic tuberculosis screening program in correctional facilities in South Africa

Post Date: 
2015-01-08
Publication: 
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background : Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence is high in correctional facilities in southern Africa. With support from local South African nongovernmental organizations, the South African Department of Correctional Services initiated a program of systematically screening newly admitted and current...

Pre-antiretroviral therapy selenium status predicts WHO stages 3, 4 or death but not virologic failure post-antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2014-11-13
Publication: 
Nutrients
A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS)), was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus...

25-Hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency and deficiency is associated with HIV disease progression and virological failure post-antiretroviral therapy initiation in diverse multinational settings

Post Date: 
2014-07-15
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with increased HIV mortality, but prospective studies assessing treatment outcomes after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation in resource-limited settings are lacking. Methods: A case-cohort study (N = 411) was nested...

Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2014-07-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Objective : In settings of high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis control and patient management are hindered by lack of accurate, rapid tuberculosis diagnostic tests that can be performed at point-of-care. The Determine TB LAM Ag (TB LAM) test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test for detection...

Taking the long view on CREATE studies' finding

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
Publication: 
The Lancet Infectious Disease
In the past 10 years, the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS TB Epidemic (CREATE) has done three large trials exploring new strategies to control HIV-related tuberculosis. Recognising that the global strategy for tuberculosis control of a decade ago (mainly directly observed short-course...

Change in Vitamin D levels occurs early after antiretroviral therapy initiation and depends on treatment regimen in resource-limited settings

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D levels,...

Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa

Post Date: 
2013-07-29
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background : The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference laboratories...

Pages

Factors Associated with Pulmonary Impairment in HIV-infected South African Adults

Post Date: 
2017-02-14
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, Washington
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
CROI 2017
Poster Presentation. Gupte A , Wong M, Msandiwa R, Barnes G, Golub J, Chaisson R, Hoffmann C, Martinson N

Rapid Diagnosis, Linkage and Treatment Initiation of Patients with Drug-resistant Tuberculosis in South Africa: The miLINC Solution to Improve Access to Care

Post Date: 
2016-07-20
Presentation Location: 
Durban, South Africa
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
21st International AIDS Conference. International AIDS Society.
Poster Presentation. Farley JE , Seiguer S, Naicker M, McKenzie-White J, Greg C, Elmi M, Stevens W, Stewart-Isherwood L

Novel Package of Integrated Mobile Applications Reduces Time to Treatment Initiation for Patients with MDR-TB

Post Date: 
2015-12-05
Presentation Location: 
Cape Town, South Africa
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
The 46th Union World Conference on Lung Health
Oral Abstract. Session: When Waves Trump Paper: The Triumph of E-Technology. Authors: Farley J, McKenzie-White J, Seiguer S, Naicker M, Peters A, Isherwood L, Olsen F, Stevens W.
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