Research News

Sepsis among newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a big problem in India, and a complex one to untangle.

In a multi-country study, we are assessing the accuracy of the BD MAX rapid MDR-TB assay to detect rifampin and isoniazid resistance.

Clinical Research

We work with scientists and practitioners around the world to conduct clinical trials and observational studies that improve prevention and treatment of many grave health issues affecting resource-limited regions, including HIV and tuberculosis.
 
We have formal research partnerships with the following institutions:
 
 

Evaluation of serologic screening for identification of chronic Salmonella typhi carriers in Vietnam

Post Date: 
2006-07-10
Publication: 
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Objectives: To determine the utility of screening anti-Vi antibodies to detect chronic Salmonella Typhi carriers in an endemic community. Methods: We conducted a community-based serologic survey for anti-Vi antibodies to identify chronic Salmonella Typhi carriers in a typhoid endemic region in...

High rates of syphilis among STI patients are contributing to the spread of HIV-1 in India

Post Date: 
2006-04-15
Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Country: 
Background: Recent syphilis outbreaks have raised concern regarding the potential enhancement of HIV transmission. The incidence of syphilis and its association with HIV‐1 infection rates among a cohort of sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees was investigated. Methods: 2732 HIV‐1...

Low HIV-1 incidence among married serodiscordant couples in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2006-03-15
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Unlike commercial sex workers and patients attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics, married couples are not typically targeted for HIV risk reduction programs in India. Thus, married partners of HIV-infected persons are at particularly high risk for HIV infection. Between September...

The expanding realm of heterologous immunity: friend or foe?

Post Date: 
2006-02-15
Publication: 
Cellular Microbiology
Antecedent or current infections can alter the immunopathologic outcome of a subsequent unrelated infection. Immunomodulation by co-infecting pathogens has been referred to as 'heterologous immunity' and has been postulated to play a role in host susceptibility to disease, tolerance to organ...

Screening for HIV dementia in an HIV, clade C-infected population in India

Post Date: 
2006-02-12
Publication: 
Journal of Neurovirology
Country: 
Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clade C virus infects the largest populations worldwide, to date there are no prospective studies reported thus far to determine the incidence or prevalence of HIV dementia in this population. HIV clade C virus is a CCR5-tropic virus and thus...

Rate of hospitalization and inpatient care costs for HIV-1 infected in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2006-02-01
Publication: 
National Medical Journal of India
Country: 
Background: The transition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has begun in India, and an increase in AIDS-related hospitalizations and deaths is an anticipated challenge. We estimated the rates of hospitalization and inpatient care costs...

Correlates and trend of HIV prevalence among female sex workers attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India (1993-2002)

Post Date: 
2006-01-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
In India, substantial efforts have been made to increase awareness about HIV/AIDS among female sex workers (FSWs). We assessed the impact of awareness regarding safe sex in a cohort of FSWs by studying trends in HIV prevalence, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and risk behaviors measured from...

High HIV prevalence among a high-risk subgroup of women attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2006-01-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Objectives: To investigate changes over a decade in prevalence and correlates of HIV among high-risk women attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in Pune, India, who deny a history of commercial sex work (CSW). Methods: From 1993 to 2002, 2376 women attending 3 STI clinics in Pune...

Mycobacterial-induced potentiation of type 1 immune responses and protection against malaria is host-specific

Post Date: 
2005-12-15
Publication: 
Infection and Immunity
Malaria and tuberculosis are endemic in many regions of the world, and coinfection with the two pathogens is common. In this study, we examined the effects of long- and short-term infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the course of a lethal form of murine malaria in resistant (C57BL/6) and...

Adult botulism type F in the United States, 1981-2002

Post Date: 
2005-12-13
Publication: 
Neurology
Background: Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin types A, B, and E cause most cases of the paralytic disease botulism. Little is known about the epidemiology, clinical features, or microbiology of botulism type F. Methods: Cases of adult type F botulism were identified by review of data collected by...

Antifungal interventions for the primary prevention of cryptococcal disease in adults with HIV

Post Date: 
2005-07-20
Publication: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to progressive destruction and weakening of the body's immune system. Patients with advanced HIV disease are vulnerable to various diseases, called opportunistic infections (OIs), which most people with normal immune systems are protected...

Genetic diversification and recombination of HIV type 1 group M in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Post Date: 
2005-07-15
Publication: 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
As the HIV-1 pandemic becomes increasingly complex, the genetic characterization of HIV strains bears important implications for vaccine research. To better understand the molecular evolution of HIV-1 viral diversity, we performed a comparative molecular analysis of HIV strains collected from high-...

Necrotizing enterocolitis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in previously healthy North-American adults

Post Date: 
2005-07-15
Publication: 
Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Background: Necrotizing enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type C ("pigbel") is a well-known syndrome in severely protein-deprived populations in the Pacific. It is exceedingly rare in the developed world. C perfringens type A is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis and, in a...

Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella sonnei: Limited antimicrobial treatment options for children and challenges of interpreting in vitro azithromycin susceptibility

Post Date: 
2005-06-15
Publication: 
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Background: Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella sonnei is a growing problem in the United States and poses treatment challenges particularly among children. Azithromycin is recommended as an alternative oral agent for shigellosis. Methods: All isolates of Shigella submitted to Johns Hopkins clinical...

IJMR Special Issue on HIV/AIDS: Editorial overview

Post Date: 
2005-04-15
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Country: 
No summary available online

High-risk behaviour in young men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India.

Post Date: 
2005-04-15
Publication: 
AIDS Care
Country: 
The present study reports sexual risk factors associated with HIV infection among men attending two sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinicsin Pune, India and compares these behaviours between young and older men. Between April 1998 and May 2000, 1872 STD patients were screened for HIV infection...

Making the choice: the translation of global HIV and infant feeding policy to local practice among mothers in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2005-04-15
Publication: 
The Journal of Nutrition
Country: 
In 2003, India had over 5.1 million infected individuals living with HIV/AIDS. The percentage of all HIV cases attributed to perinatal transmission has been increasing steadily from 0.33% of total cases in 1999 to 2.80% in 2004. Recent statistics indicate that over 130,000 infants have been...

Sex-based differences in T lymphocyte responses in HIV-1-seropositive individuals

Post Date: 
2005-03-15
Publication: 
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sex-based differences in the levels of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma could be associated with differences in the strength of HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses. CD8(+) effector responses in 18 men and 15 women were measured 0-2 years (time A) and 5-7 years (time B) after...

Correlates of HIV vaccine trial participation: an Indian perspective

Post Date: 
2005-02-03
Publication: 
Vaccine
Country: 
Successful conduct of HIV vaccine trials in a population of great cultural diversity like India could be a challenge. Concerns, knowledge gaps and willingness to participate in future HIV vaccine trials were studied among 349 patients attending three sexually transmitted infections clinics and one...

Limited evolution in the HIV type 1 pol region among acute seroconverters in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2005-01-15
Publication: 
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Country: 
India has the second largest burden of HIV-1-infected persons worldwide. Access to antiretroviral drugs in India is increasing. We analyzed HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase sequences in 12 acute seroconverters from Pune, India, and evaluated HIV-1 evolution in these individuals over time...

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Early Mortality post HAART initiation in Low- and Middle-income countries

Post Date: 
2010-01-22
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
National AIDS Research Institute
Presentation

Beyond current first-line antiretrovirals: need for second-line and newer drugs as well as optimized care

Post Date: 
2010-01-18
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
Symposium on Policy, Program and Care for HIV/AIDS in India. National AIDS Research Institute.
Symposium on Policy, Program and Care for HIV/AIDS in India

Early Mortality post HAART initiation in Low- and Middle-income countries

Post Date: 
2010-01-13
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
BJMC Medical Grand Rounds. BJ Medical Center
Presentation

Early Mortality post HAART initiation in Low- and Middle-income countries

Post Date: 
2010-01-10
Presentation Location: 
Chennai, India
Event & Convener: 
National HIV CART Conference
Presentation

World Health Organization (WHO) HIV Treatment Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents: Updates and Insights on the 2009 Revision

Post Date: 
2009-12-17
Presentation Location: 
Washington, DC
Event & Convener: 
Accordia Foundation and Infectious Disease Institute Board Meeting
Presentation

Conduct of international clinical trials

Post Date: 
2009-12-02
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Seminars in Clinical Investigations Course. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Presentation

World Health Organization (WHO) HIV Treatment Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents: Update and Insights on the 2009 Revision

Post Date: 
2009-11-30
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Infectious Diseases Conference. Johns Hopkins
Presentation

Conducting HIV clinical research: How to pose a relevant research question

Post Date: 
2009-11-13
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
National AIDS Research Institute
Presentation

The HIV epidemic among Latinos living in the U.S.

Post Date: 
2009-10-31
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Medicine Grand Rounds. Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine
Presentation

WHO stop mother to child transmission of TB: What we do and do not know

Post Date: 
2009-07-19
Presentation Location: 
Cape Town, South Africa
Event & Convener: 
5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention
Presentation

Malnutrition, HIV and antiretroviral treatment outcomes: Current knowledge and controversies

Post Date: 
2009-07-08
Presentation Location: 
New York, NY
Event & Convener: 
Cornell Medical School, Division of Infectious Diseases
Presentation

HIV in India

Post Date: 
2009-05-22
Presentation Location: 
New York, NY
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
CIDER Seminar. Columbia Mailman School of Public Health
Presentation

HIV in India

Post Date: 
2009-05-04
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins University AIDS Alliance
Presentation

HIV pathogenesis and implications for acquired resistance

Post Date: 
2009-04-30
Presentation Location: 
Montevideo, Uruguay
Event & Convener: 
Facultad de Ciencias (University of Biological Sciences)
Facultad de Ciencias

TB in pregnancy and novel TB diagnostics

Post Date: 
2009-04-28
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
BJ Medical College Grand Rounds. BJ Medical College
Presentation

Collaborative Leadership through Effective Networks

Post Date: 
2009-04-21
Presentation Location: 
Kampala, Uganda
Event & Convener: 
Infectious Disease Summit
Presentation

Information Technology and Distance Learning and UbuntuNet and Broadband Connectivity in Four African Countries

Post Date: 
2009-04-17
Presentation Location: 
Nairobi, Kenya
Event & Convener: 
Consortium Workshop: Training Future Leaders in Global Health
Presentation

Global Health Education - Where in the world are we?

Post Date: 
2009-04-03
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, WA
Event & Convener: 
Annual GHEC Conference
Presentation

Update on HIV Resistance

Post Date: 
2009-03-31
Presentation Location: 
San Salvador, El Salvador
Event & Convener: 
COMISCA (Consejos de Ministerios de Salud de Centroamerica- Counsel of Central American Ministries of Health). Renaissance Hotel
Presentationi

PMTCT, infant feeding and response to ART treatment and resistance in women and children

Post Date: 
2009-03-26
Presentation Location: 
Maseru, Lesotho
Event & Convener: 
US State Department Workshop. Baylor Center for Excellence Pediatric Hospital
Presentation

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