Research News

In a large study in Uganda, Dr. Larry Chang and colleagues found that combination HIV prevention has population level implications, reducing new infections by 42%.

New study in Pune, India, aims to identify the profile of TB antibodies between mothers and infants, and to see if the presence of antibodies lowers risk of infant infection.

Clinical Research

We work with scientists and practitioners around the world to conduct clinical trials and observational studies that improve prevention and treatment of many grave health issues affecting resource-limited regions, including HIV and tuberculosis.
 
We have formal research partnerships with the following institutions:
 
 

Declining HIV infection rates among recently married, pregnant women in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2007-08-15
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Background: A single recent study has suggested a decrease in HIV risk for women attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) in southern India. Yet, some have questioned the validity of the Indian national surveillance data and analyses. Previous studies suggest that the only major HIV risk factor for...

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV among women who chose not to exclusively breastfeed their infants in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2007-08-15
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Country: 
Background and Objective: The percentage of HIV cases attributed to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has increased several fold in recent years. No reports are available on HIV MTCT rates among HIV-infected choosing not be exclusively breastfeed their infants in India. We examined HIV MTCT rates...

U.S. medical resident familiarity with national tuberculosis guidelines

Post Date: 
2007-08-02
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: The ability of medical residents training at U.S. urban medical centers to diagnose and manage tuberculosis cases has important public health implications. We assessed medical resident knowledge about tuberculosis diagnosis and early management based on American Thoracic Society...

Mortality and clinical characteristics of hospitalized adult patients with HIV in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2007-08-01
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Country: 
Background and Objective: In India, data regarding mortality and clinical characteristics of hospitalized HIV-infected patients are sparse, which may limit the effectiveness of new hospital-based HIV programmes providing antiretroviral therapy (ART). The objective of our study was to determine...

Post-partum TB incidence and mortality among HIV-infected women and their infants in Pune, India 2002-2005

Post Date: 
2007-07-15
Country: 
Background: In contrast with many other countries, isoniazid preventative therapy is not recommended in clinical care guidelines for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with latent tuberculosis (TB) in India. Methods: Seven hundred fifteen HIV-infected mothers and their infants were...

Hematogenous osteomyelitis mimicking osteosarcoma due to Community Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Post Date: 
2007-06-15
Publication: 
Infection
Community Associated Methicillin - Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging pathogen with increasing clinical significance. Initially recognized as a cause of skin and soft tissue infections, it has soon been shown to cause life threatening illnesses. We describe two cases of...

Clinically significant anemia in HIV-infected pregnant women in India is not a major barrier to zidovudine use for prevention of maternal-to-child transmission

Post Date: 
2007-06-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anemia (serum hemoglobin <10 g/dL) and assess zidovudine use and toxicity in HIV-positive pregnant women in India. Methods: From 2002 through 2006, 24,105 pregnant women in Pune were screened for HIV and anemia. As part of an infant prevention of mother...

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression among HIV-infected persons receiving care in private clinics in Mumbai, India

Post Date: 
2007-05-01
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and correlates of adherence and virologic suppression among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons receiving ART in private, outpatient clinics in India is unknown. Methods: Between December 2004 and April 2005, persons receiving...

Impact of maternal HIV co-infection on the vertical transmission of Hepatitis C virus: a meta-analysis.

Post Date: 
2007-04-15
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: Observational studies suggest that maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is associated with increased odds of vertical HCV transmission. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize current evidence. Methods: We systematically searched for relevant...

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of antiretroviral therapy among adults attending private and public clinics in India

Post Date: 
2007-02-15
Publication: 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Country: 
India has approximately 5.2 million persons infected with HIV. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is being widely introduced in public clinics, many HIV-infected persons still seek care via the private sector. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 at six public and private sites to...

The traveling farm wife

Post Date: 
2007-01-15
Publication: 
American Journal of Medicine
In late summer, a 77-year-old woman was hospitalized after 9 days of chills, low-grade fever, fatigue, and generalized weakness. She did not have abdominal pain, coughing, diarrhea, dyspnea, jaundice, nausea, rashes, sore throat, vomiting, or weight loss. Her medical history was significant for...

Same-sex behavior and high rates of HIV among men attending sexually transmitted infection clinics in Pune, India (1993-2002)

Post Date: 
2006-12-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Objectives: To determine HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, trends, and risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) and compare these with those of non-MSM attending STI clinics in Pune, India over a 10-year period. Methods: From 1993 through 2002, men attending 3 STI...

Community preparedness for HIV vaccine trials in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Post Date: 
2006-11-30
Publication: 
Culture, Health, and Sexuality
This paper reports on an assessment of community preparedness for HIV vaccine trials in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Formative research was conducted in the capital city of Kinshasa during the period October 2003 to March 2004 to answer questions pertinent to planning trials of a preventive...

Improved adherence and less toxicity with rifampin vs isoniazid for treatment of latent tuberculosis: a retrospective study

Post Date: 
2006-09-25
Publication: 
Archives of Internal Medicine
Country: 
Background: Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important aspect of tuberculosis control in the United States, but the effectiveness of this strategy is compromised by poor adherence to the recommended 9-month isoniazid regimen. In this study, we compared treatment completion...

Evaluation of serologic screening for identification of chronic Salmonella typhi carriers in Vietnam

Post Date: 
2006-07-10
Publication: 
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
Objectives: To determine the utility of screening anti-Vi antibodies to detect chronic Salmonella Typhi carriers in an endemic community. Methods: We conducted a community-based serologic survey for anti-Vi antibodies to identify chronic Salmonella Typhi carriers in a typhoid endemic region in...

High rates of syphilis among STI patients are contributing to the spread of HIV-1 in India

Post Date: 
2006-04-15
Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Country: 
Background: Recent syphilis outbreaks have raised concern regarding the potential enhancement of HIV transmission. The incidence of syphilis and its association with HIV‐1 infection rates among a cohort of sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic attendees was investigated. Methods: 2732 HIV‐1...

Low HIV-1 incidence among married serodiscordant couples in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2006-03-15
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Unlike commercial sex workers and patients attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics, married couples are not typically targeted for HIV risk reduction programs in India. Thus, married partners of HIV-infected persons are at particularly high risk for HIV infection. Between September...

The expanding realm of heterologous immunity: friend or foe?

Post Date: 
2006-02-15
Publication: 
Cellular Microbiology
Antecedent or current infections can alter the immunopathologic outcome of a subsequent unrelated infection. Immunomodulation by co-infecting pathogens has been referred to as 'heterologous immunity' and has been postulated to play a role in host susceptibility to disease, tolerance to organ...

Screening for HIV dementia in an HIV, clade C-infected population in India

Post Date: 
2006-02-12
Publication: 
Journal of Neurovirology
Country: 
Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clade C virus infects the largest populations worldwide, to date there are no prospective studies reported thus far to determine the incidence or prevalence of HIV dementia in this population. HIV clade C virus is a CCR5-tropic virus and thus...

Rate of hospitalization and inpatient care costs for HIV-1 infected in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2006-02-01
Publication: 
National Medical Journal of India
Country: 
Background: The transition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has begun in India, and an increase in AIDS-related hospitalizations and deaths is an anticipated challenge. We estimated the rates of hospitalization and inpatient care costs...

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Technology in Other Countries

Post Date: 
2010-05-07
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Innovation and Africa Program. University of Maryland
Presentation

Symposium on International Distance Learning and Infectious Diseases

Post Date: 
2010-04-27
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Department of Medicine Research Retreat. Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Bollinger, R. and Chang, LW

New Strategies to Expand Clinical Care Capacity in Resource-Limited Settings

Post Date: 
2010-04-17
Presentation Location: 
New Haven, CT
Event & Convener: 
Global Health and Innovation Conference. Yale University
Presentationi

The use of Distance Learning Techniques to Support Clinical Care and Laboratory Capacity in Resource-Limited Settings

Post Date: 
2010-03-23
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
2010 Leadership Conference. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)

HIV/AIDS and Associated Opportunistic Infections

Post Date: 
2010-01-28
Presentation Location: 
Albuquerque, NM
Event & Convener: 
University of New Mexico
Presentation

Early Mortality post HAART initiation in Low- and Middle-income countries

Post Date: 
2010-01-22
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
National AIDS Research Institute
Presentation

Beyond current first-line antiretrovirals: need for second-line and newer drugs as well as optimized care

Post Date: 
2010-01-18
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
Symposium on Policy, Program and Care for HIV/AIDS in India. National AIDS Research Institute.
Symposium on Policy, Program and Care for HIV/AIDS in India

Early Mortality post HAART initiation in Low- and Middle-income countries

Post Date: 
2010-01-13
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
BJMC Medical Grand Rounds. BJ Medical Center
Presentation

Early Mortality post HAART initiation in Low- and Middle-income countries

Post Date: 
2010-01-10
Presentation Location: 
Chennai, India
Event & Convener: 
National HIV CART Conference
Presentation

World Health Organization (WHO) HIV Treatment Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents: Updates and Insights on the 2009 Revision

Post Date: 
2009-12-17
Presentation Location: 
Washington, DC
Event & Convener: 
Accordia Foundation and Infectious Disease Institute Board Meeting
Presentation

Conduct of international clinical trials

Post Date: 
2009-12-02
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Seminars in Clinical Investigations Course. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Presentation

World Health Organization (WHO) HIV Treatment Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents: Update and Insights on the 2009 Revision

Post Date: 
2009-11-30
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Infectious Diseases Conference. Johns Hopkins
Presentation

Conducting HIV clinical research: How to pose a relevant research question

Post Date: 
2009-11-13
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
National AIDS Research Institute
Presentation

The HIV epidemic among Latinos living in the U.S.

Post Date: 
2009-10-31
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Medicine Grand Rounds. Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine
Presentation

WHO stop mother to child transmission of TB: What we do and do not know

Post Date: 
2009-07-19
Presentation Location: 
Cape Town, South Africa
Event & Convener: 
5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention
Presentation

Malnutrition, HIV and antiretroviral treatment outcomes: Current knowledge and controversies

Post Date: 
2009-07-08
Presentation Location: 
New York, NY
Event & Convener: 
Cornell Medical School, Division of Infectious Diseases
Presentation

HIV in India

Post Date: 
2009-05-22
Presentation Location: 
New York, NY
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
CIDER Seminar. Columbia Mailman School of Public Health
Presentation

HIV in India

Post Date: 
2009-05-04
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins University AIDS Alliance
Presentation

HIV pathogenesis and implications for acquired resistance

Post Date: 
2009-04-30
Presentation Location: 
Montevideo, Uruguay
Event & Convener: 
Facultad de Ciencias (University of Biological Sciences)
Facultad de Ciencias

TB in pregnancy and novel TB diagnostics

Post Date: 
2009-04-28
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
BJ Medical College Grand Rounds. BJ Medical College
Presentation

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