Research News

Sepsis among newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a big problem in India, and a complex one to untangle.

In a multi-country study, we are assessing the accuracy of the BD MAX rapid MDR-TB assay to detect rifampin and isoniazid resistance.

Clinical Research

We work with scientists and practitioners around the world to conduct clinical trials and observational studies that improve prevention and treatment of many grave health issues affecting resource-limited regions, including HIV and tuberculosis.
 
We have formal research partnerships with the following institutions:
 
 

Challenges to disclosure of HIV status to perinatally infected children: a study of caregiver perspectives in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-06-15
Publication: 
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Effective guidelines around disclosure of HIV status are lacking and limited data from India reveal low rates of HIV disclosure to perinatally infected children. This study, conducted in Pune, India, attempts to understand the experiences of caregivers of perinatally infected children around the...

Comparative performance of urinary lipoarabinomannan assays and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected individuals

Post Date: 
2014-06-01
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Background : Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but have suboptimal sensitivity when used individually in HIV-positive patients. The yield of these tests used in combination for the diagnosis of active TB among HIV-infected TB...

Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in HIV: evidence from a clinical cohort in Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Objective: To delineate the association between baseline socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) in urban Uganda. Design: Retrospective cohort study nested in an antiretroviral...

Taking the long view on CREATE studies' finding

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
Publication: 
The Lancet Infectious Disease
In the past 10 years, the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS TB Epidemic (CREATE) has done three large trials exploring new strategies to control HIV-related tuberculosis. Recognising that the global strategy for tuberculosis control of a decade ago (mainly directly observed short-course...

Gender-related barriers and delays in accessing tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services - Part 2: a systematic review of qualitative studies

Post Date: 
2014-05-11
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health problem with known gender-related (male versus female) disparities. We reviewed the qualitative evidence (written/spoken narrative) for gender-related differences limiting TB service access from symptom onset to treatment...

Barriers and delays in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services: does gender matter

Post Date: 
2014-04-28
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem with known gender-related disparities. We reviewed the quantitative evidence for gender-related differences in accessing TB services from symptom onset to treatment initiation. Methods: Following a systematic review process, we:...

Change in Vitamin D levels occurs early after antiretroviral therapy initiation and depends on treatment regimen in resource-limited settings

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D levels,...

The evolving role of advocacy in tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2014-04-02
Publication: 
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Tuberculosis advocacy has changed the disease from a silent epidemic to one with many voices that seek increased political will and investment in research.1 Tuberculosis advocacy has gained strength as a mechanism to improve research, increase access to new methods to fight tuberculosis, and...

Pregnancy differentially impacts performance of latent tuberculosis diagnostics in a high-burden setting

Post Date: 
2014-03-21
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: Targeted screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) in vulnerable populations is a recommended TB control strategy. Pregnant women are at high risk for developing TB and likely to access healthcare, making pregnancy an important screening opportunity in developing countries. The...

Biomarkers for sepsis: a review with special attention to India

Post Date: 
2014-03-19
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Country: 
Sepsis is a serious infection and still a common cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings such as India. Even when microbiologic diagnostics are available, bacteremia is only identified in a proportion of patients who present with sepsis and bloodstream infections. Biomarkers...

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
Publication: 
Vaccine
Country: 
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

Field evaluation of PIMA point-of-care CD4 testing in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-03-10
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Objective: To assess the accuracy of PIMA Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 testing in rural Rakai, Uganda. Methods: 903 HIV positive persons attending field clinics provided a venous blood sample assessed on site using PIMA analyzers per manufacturer's specifications. The venous samples were then run on...

The role of viral introductions in sustaining community-based HIV epidemics in rural Uganda: evidence from spatial clustering, phylogenics, and egocentric transmission models

Post Date: 
2014-03-04
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities—home to two-thirds of the African population—is driven by intra-community...

Modifiable risk factors associated with tuberculosis disease in children in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-02-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Country: 
Setting: India accounts for the largest burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, with 26% of the world's cases. Objective: To assess the association between novel modifiable risk factors and TB in Indian children. Design: Cases were children aged ≤ 5 years with confirmed/probable TB based on World...

Mortality and long-term virologic outcomes in children and infants treated with lopinavir/ritonavir

Post Date: 
2013-12-15
Publication: 
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Country: 
Background: There is scant data on young children receiving protease inhibitor-based therapy in real-life resource-limited settings and on the optimal timing of therapy among children who survive infancy. Our aim was to evaluate outcomes at the Hospital del Niño, Panama, where children have been...

Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-11-28
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Objective : Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people...

Pediatric tuberculosis in young children in India: a prospective study

Post Date: 
2013-11-11
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Country: 
Background: India has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens globally. However, few studies have focused on TB in young children, a vulnerable population, where lack of early diagnosis results in poor outcomes. Methods: Young children (≤ 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively enrolled...

The Exposure Assessment in current time (EXACT) study: implementation, feasibility and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users

Post Date: 
2013-11-06
Publication: 
AIDS Research and Treatment
Country: 
Objective: We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants...

Cost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosing pulmonary Tuberculosis in the United States

Post Date: 
2013-10-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Country: 
Setting : Conventional approaches to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and resistance testing are slow. The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is an emerging molecular diagnostic assay for rapid TB diagnosis, offering results within 2 hours. However, the cost-effectiveness of implementing Xpert in settings with low TB...

Intensified case-finding of latent tuberculosis infection among the Baltimore City Hispanic population

Post Date: 
2013-08-15
Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Country: 
Foreign-born immigrants are at high risk for latent TB infection (LTBI). In conjunction with the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD), student volunteers conducted intensified LTBI case-finding (ICF) using tuberculin skin testing (TST) in the Hispanic community from 2006-2010. We sought to...

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Rakai Health Sciences Program: Social, Behavioral, and Biomedical Research in HIV Dynamics, Prevention, and Care

Post Date: 
2015-10-30
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
CFAR National Social and Behavioral Sciences Research Network Annual Meeting
Presentation

mHealth

Post Date: 
2015-10-29
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
CFAR National Social and Behavioral Sciences Research Network Annual Meeting
Presentation

Operational Challenges Undermine WHO TB Symptom Screen in Pregnant Women

Post Date: 
2015-10-11
Presentation Location: 
San Diego, CA
Event & Convener: 
ID Week 2015
Poster Session: Latent TB Infection: Diagnosis and Treatment. Vaidya A , Tambe S, Bhosale R, Mave V, Elf J, Pradhan N, Nevrekar N, Patil S, Kagal A, Joshi S, Chandanwale A, Gupta A, Mathad J.

Developing a Validated Tool to Assess Internal Medicine and Infectious Disease Trainees’ Ability to Obtain and Interpret TB Diagnostics

Post Date: 
2015-10-11
Presentation Location: 
San Diego, CA
Event & Convener: 
ID Week 2015
Presentation. Chida N, Gupta A, Bollinger B, Melia M.

Dengue and Malaria are Common Infections among Adults and Adolescents Hospitalized with Acute Febrile Illness in Western India

Post Date: 
2015-10-09
Presentation Location: 
San Diego, CA
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Infectious Diseases Society of America. ID Week 2015.
Poster Session: Student and Resident Poster Gallery during Posters in the Park. Mave V, Kadam D, Bharadwaj R, Kagal A, Sachs J, Raichur P, Kanade S, Gupte N, Joshi S, Chandanwale A, Zenilman JM, Bollinger R, Gupta A.

A Man from Central America with Progressive Shortness of Breath

Post Date: 
2015-10-07
Presentation Location: 
San Diego, CA
Event & Convener: 
ID Week 2015
Case Report. Fellows' Day Workshop.

TB and Women

Post Date: 
2015-09-29
Presentation Location: 
Rehoboth, DE
Event & Convener: 
Mid Atlantic TB Intensive Workshop
Presentation

Conducting HIV and TB Research in India: Challenges and Opportunities

Post Date: 
2015-08-27
Presentation Location: 
Atlanta, GA
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Emory University
Presentation

Tuberculosis in Pregnant Women and Infants

Post Date: 
2015-08-26
Presentation Location: 
Atlanta, GA
Event & Convener: 
International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases
Presentation

Tuberculosis in Peripartum Women and Infants

Post Date: 
2015-08-26
Presentation Location: 
Atlanta, GA
Event & Convener: 
International Conference on Emerging Infectious Diseases
Presentation

Tuberculosis in Pregnant Women and Infants

Post Date: 
2015-08-25
Presentation Location: 
Atlanta, GA
Event & Convener: 
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Presentation

Global Teaching of Global Health Competencies for Medical Students in Uganda

Post Date: 
2015-07-15
Presentation Location: 
Harare, Zimbabwe
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) Innovation Session
Presentation

Hispanic-Serving Health Professions Schools (HSHPS) 2015 Workshop

Post Date: 
2015-06-30
Presentation Location: 
Bethesda, MD
Event & Convener: 
Hispanic-Serving Health Professions Schools (HSHPS) 2015 Workshop. HSHPS and National Institutes of Health
Panelist

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of TB in Young Children: The Role of Hair Assays

Post Date: 
2015-06-17
Presentation Location: 
Washington, DC
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
IMPAACT Annual Meeting
Lecture

TB Research and Community Impact

Post Date: 
2015-05-27
Presentation Location: 
N/A
Event & Convener: 
Community Research Advisory Group (CRAG), Community Partners (CP). TB/HIV International Research & Community Engagement Webinar
Lecturer

The Association of Exposure to Air Pollution from Biomass Fuels, Kerosene, and Secondhand Tobacco Smoke with TB in Adult Women and Children in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2015-05-01
Presentation Location: 
Denver, CO
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
American Thoracic Society International Conference
Poster Session: Latent TB Infection: Diagnosis and Treatment. Oral Presentation. Elf JL , Kinikar A, Khadse S, Mave V, Gupte N, Kulkarni V, Patekar S, Raichur P, Breysse P, Gupta A, Golub J.

Conducting HIV/TB Research in India: Challenges and Opportunities

Post Date: 
2015-04-17
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Grand Rounds, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Presentation

Conference on Vaccine Research, Closing Talk

Post Date: 
2015-04-15
Presentation Location: 
Bethesda, MD
Event & Convener: 
Annual Conference on Vaccine Research. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases
Presentation

Grand Rounds

Post Date: 
2015-03-31
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Center for Child and Community Health Research. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Bayview Medical Center
Presentation

TB and Diabetes Mellitus

Post Date: 
2015-03-30
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
RePORT India TB Workshop
Panel participant

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