Research News

In a large study in Uganda, Dr. Larry Chang and colleagues found that combination HIV prevention has population level implications, reducing new infections by 42%.

New study in Pune, India, aims to identify the profile of TB antibodies between mothers and infants, and to see if the presence of antibodies lowers risk of infant infection.

Clinical Research

We work with scientists and practitioners around the world to conduct clinical trials and observational studies that improve prevention and treatment of many grave health issues affecting resource-limited regions, including HIV and tuberculosis.
 
We have formal research partnerships with the following institutions:
 
 

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
Publication: 
Vaccine
Country: 
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

Field evaluation of PIMA point-of-care CD4 testing in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-03-10
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Objective: To assess the accuracy of PIMA Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 testing in rural Rakai, Uganda. Methods: 903 HIV positive persons attending field clinics provided a venous blood sample assessed on site using PIMA analyzers per manufacturer's specifications. The venous samples were then run on...

The role of viral introductions in sustaining community-based HIV epidemics in rural Uganda: evidence from spatial clustering, phylogenics, and egocentric transmission models

Post Date: 
2014-03-04
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities—home to two-thirds of the African population—is driven by intra-community...

Modifiable risk factors associated with tuberculosis disease in children in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-02-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Country: 
Setting: India accounts for the largest burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, with 26% of the world's cases. Objective: To assess the association between novel modifiable risk factors and TB in Indian children. Design: Cases were children aged ≤ 5 years with confirmed/probable TB based on World...

Mortality and long-term virologic outcomes in children and infants treated with lopinavir/ritonavir

Post Date: 
2013-12-15
Publication: 
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Country: 
Background: There is scant data on young children receiving protease inhibitor-based therapy in real-life resource-limited settings and on the optimal timing of therapy among children who survive infancy. Our aim was to evaluate outcomes at the Hospital del Niño, Panama, where children have been...

Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-11-28
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Objective : Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people...

Pediatric tuberculosis in young children in India: a prospective study

Post Date: 
2013-11-11
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Country: 
Background: India has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens globally. However, few studies have focused on TB in young children, a vulnerable population, where lack of early diagnosis results in poor outcomes. Methods: Young children (≤ 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively enrolled...

The Exposure Assessment in current time (EXACT) study: implementation, feasibility and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users

Post Date: 
2013-11-06
Publication: 
AIDS Research and Treatment
Country: 
Objective: We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants...

Cost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosing pulmonary Tuberculosis in the United States

Post Date: 
2013-10-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Country: 
Setting : Conventional approaches to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and resistance testing are slow. The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is an emerging molecular diagnostic assay for rapid TB diagnosis, offering results within 2 hours. However, the cost-effectiveness of implementing Xpert in settings with low TB...

Intensified case-finding of latent tuberculosis infection among the Baltimore City Hispanic population

Post Date: 
2013-08-15
Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Country: 
Foreign-born immigrants are at high risk for latent TB infection (LTBI). In conjunction with the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD), student volunteers conducted intensified LTBI case-finding (ICF) using tuberculin skin testing (TST) in the Hispanic community from 2006-2010. We sought to...

India’s new policy to protect research participants

Post Date: 
2013-07-31
Publication: 
The BMJ
Country: 
Editorial Introduction: India, the country with the largest disease burden in the world,1 is now a major international hub for clinical research. However, a recent policy that was meant to mitigate important ethical concerns may have profound and unintended consequences for public health and may...

Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa

Post Date: 
2013-07-29
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background : The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference laboratories...

A qualitative study of barriers to enrollment into free HIV care: perspectives of never-in-care HIV-positive patients and providers in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-07-23
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Country: 
Background: Early entry into HIV care is low in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Rakai, about a third (31.5%) of HIV-positive clients who knew their serostatus did not enroll into free care services. This qualitative study explored barriers to entry into care from HIV-positive clients who had never enrolled...

Patterns of TB drug-resistance in a tertiary care facility in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2013-07-18
Publication: 
Clinical Microbiology
Country: 
Introduction:Globally, the emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) (defined as resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) and extensively drug resistant (XDR-TB) (defined as resistance to INH, RIF, any fluoroquinolone and to at least one of the three injectable second line...

Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5253

Post Date: 
2013-04-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Background: Improved tuberculosis (TB) screening is urgently needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Methods: An observational, multi-country, cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients to compare a standardized diagnostic evaluation (SDE) for TB with standard of care (...

Changes in HIV-1 subtypes B and C genital tract RNA in women and men after initiation of antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2013-03-26
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1...

Low tuberculosis knowledge among HIV-infected patients in a high HIV prevalence region within Southeast India

Post Date: 
2013-03-21
Publication: 
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Country: 
Setting: A private multispecialty hospital in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: A survey of knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions adapted from a pretested questionnaire was administered to 128 HIV-infected adults, from July to August 2008.

Correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among participants enrolled in a cohort study in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2013-03-15
Publication: 
International Health
Country: 
Background: Optimum comprehension of informed consent by research participants is essential yet challenging. This study explored correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among 1334 participants of a cohort study aimed at estimating HIV incidence in Pune, India. Methods: As part of the...

Availability of treatment for eclampsia in public health institutions in Maharashtra, India

Post Date: 
2013-03-15
Publication: 
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Country: 
Abstract Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are common causes of maternal deaths worldwide and more so in developing countries. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is now the most-recommended drug of choice to treat these conditions. Despite favourable policies for the use of MgSO4 treatment in India,...

Combination implementation for HIV prevention: moving from evidence to population-level impact

Post Date: 
2013-01-15
Publication: 
The Lancet Infectious Disease
The promise of combination HIV prevention-the application of multiple HIV prevention interventions to maximise population-level effects-has never been greater. However, to succeed in achieving significant reductions in HIV incidence, an additional concept needs to be considered: combination...

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Grand Rounds

Post Date: 
2015-03-31
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Center for Child and Community Health Research. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Bayview Medical Center
Presentation

TB and Diabetes Mellitus

Post Date: 
2015-03-30
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
RePORT India TB Workshop
Panel participant

Mobilizing Research for Global Health

Post Date: 
2015-03-25
Presentation Location: 
Boston, MA
Event & Convener: 
Sixth Annual CUGH Conference. Consortium of Universities for Global Health
Presentation

TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2015-03-05
Presentation Location: 
Mumbai, India
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
RePORT India TB Workshop
Presentation

Tuberculosis in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2015-02-25
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, WA
Event & Convener: 
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2015
Presentation. Session: Tuberculosis: Magic Bullets and Moving Targets.

Tuberculosis in Children

Post Date: 
2015-02-24
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, WA
Event & Convener: 
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2015
Session: Tuberculosis: Magic Bullets and Moving Targets. CROI 2015: Seattle, WA. 2015-02-24.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Multiple Micronutrient Deficiencies Pre- and Post-ART

Post Date: 
2015-02-24
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, Washington
Event & Convener: 
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2015
Poster Presentation. Shivakoti R, Christian P, Gupte N, Kanyama C, Berendes S, Lama JR, Semba RD, Campbell TB, Gupta A for the NWCS 319 and PEARLS Study Team.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Multiple Micronutrient Deficiencies Pre- and Post-ART

Post Date: 
2015-02-24
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, WA
Event & Convener: 
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2015
Poster Presentation. Shivakoti R, Christian P, Gupte N, Kanyama C, Berendes S, Lama JR, Semba RD, Campbell TB, Gupta A for the NWCS 319 and PEARLS Study Team.

Obesity and Inflammation in Resource-Driven Settings of ART Initiation

Post Date: 
2015-02-24
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, WA
Event & Convener: 
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2015
Poster Discussion. Erlandson KM, Gupte N, Lama JR, Patcharaphan S, Mwelase T, Balagopal A, Asmuth D, Campbell TB, Gupta A.

Cost-effectiveness of Isonaizid Preventive Therapy for HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in India

Post Date: 
2015-02-24
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, WA
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2015
Poster Presentation. Kapoor S, Chida N, Gupta A, Shah M

Persistently High IL-18 and sCD14 are Independently Associated with Clinical Failure

Post Date: 
2015-02-24
Presentation Location: 
Seattle, WA
Event & Convener: 
Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2015
Poster Presentation. Balagopal A, Gupte N, Hakim J, Hosseinipour M, Nagalingeswaran K, Cox A, Sanne I, Asmuth D, Campbell T, Gupta A

Conducting Infectious Diseases Research in India

Post Date: 
2015-02-16
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
Presentation

Empowering Women in Global Health: Lessons Learned and Strategies for Success

Post Date: 
2015-02-16
Presentation Location: 
New York, NY
Event & Convener: 
Women in Global Health Symposium. Weill Cornell Medical College
Presentation

PMTCT: Current Recommendations

Post Date: 
2015-01-31
Presentation Location: 
Mumbai, India
Event & Convener: 
5th National Conference on HIV/AIDS Therapy
Presentation

Global Health Panel Discussion

Post Date: 
2015-01-22
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Global Health Webinar
Panel participant

Metabolic Complications/Inflammation

Post Date: 
2015-01-10
Presentation Location: 
Mumbai, India
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
5th National Conference on HIV/AIDS Therapy
Panel Discussion: TB and HIV Co-Morbidities & IRIS.

Metabolic Complications/Inflammation Lecture

Post Date: 
2015-01-10
Presentation Location: 
Mumbai, India
Event & Convener: 
5th National Conference on HIV/AIDS Therapy
TB and HIV Co-Morbidities & IRIS Panel Discussion. Gupta A

Intro to mHealth

Post Date: 
2014-12-17
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
JHU-GmI Seminar. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Presentation

IMPAACT TB Scientific Committee 5 year Priorities and Plans

Post Date: 
2014-12-03
Presentation Location: 
Washington, DC
Event & Convener: 
IMPAACT Network External Review. NIH
Presenter. Gupta A

Conducting International Clinical Trials: Some Important Considerations

Post Date: 
2014-11-19
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins Clinical Investigation Course
Lecture. Gupta A

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