Research News

Sepsis among newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a big problem in India, and a complex one to untangle.

In a multi-country study, we are assessing the accuracy of the BD MAX rapid MDR-TB assay to detect rifampin and isoniazid resistance.

Clinical Research

We work with scientists and practitioners around the world to conduct clinical trials and observational studies that improve prevention and treatment of many grave health issues affecting resource-limited regions, including HIV and tuberculosis.
 
We have formal research partnerships with the following institutions:
 
 

Detection of microbial translocation in HIV and SIV infection using the limulus amebocyte lysate assay is masked by serum and plasma

Post Date: 
2012-08-01
Publication: 
PLOS One
Objective: Microbial translocation (MT) is thought to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of HIV-related immune activation, and circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is the principle measurement of this process. However, related research has been impeded by...

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex enhances susceptibility of CD4 T Cells to HIV through a TLR2-mediated pathway

Post Date: 
2012-07-23
Publication: 
PLOS One
Among HIV-infected individuals, co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with faster progression to AIDS. We investigated the hypothesis that M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis (Mtb complex) could enhance susceptibility of CD4+ cells to HIV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear...

Guidelines for improving entry into and retention in care and antiretroviral adherence for persons with HIV: evidence-based recommendations from an International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care panel

Post Date: 
2012-06-05
Publication: 
Annals of Internal Medicine
Description: After HIV diagnosis, timely entry into HIV medical care and retention in that care are essential to the provision of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART adherence is among the key determinants of successful HIV treatment outcome and is essential to minimize the emergence of...

Authors’ response to Hanrahan et al CID article

Post Date: 
2012-05-15
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Reply to letter

Programmatic impact of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube implementation on latent tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in a public health clinic

Post Date: 
2012-05-07
Publication: 
PLoS One
Country: 
Background : QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) is considered an alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection, but the programmatic impact of QFT-GIT implementation is largely unknown. In March, 2010, the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD)...

Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic interactions between single-dose TMC207 and steady-state efavirenz in healthy volunteers: AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study.

Post Date: 
2012-04-15
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Background: Drug-drug interactions complicate management of coinfection with HIV-1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bedaquiline (formerly TMC207), an investigational agent for the treatment of tuberculosis, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A which may be induced by the antiretroviral drug...

Predictors of mortality in hospitalized children with pandemic H1N1 influenza 2009 in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2012-04-15
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Country: 
Objective: To analyse the factors associated with increased mortality among Indian Children with H1N1. Methods: Data were abstracted from available hospital records of children less than 12 y of age, who were admitted to Sassoon General Hospital in Pune, India, with confirmed pandemic 2009 H1N1...

Determination of a reference interval in a population

Post Date: 
2012-02-01
Publication: 
National Medical Journal of India
Country: 
The reference interval is the most widely used medical decision-making tool that separates healthy from diseased individuals. We briefly discuss the methods used to determine reference interval and its limitations.

A systematic review of HIV/AIDS survival and delayed diagnosis among Hispanics in the United States

Post Date: 
2012-02-01
Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Abstract HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects Hispanics. Our objective was to determine the risk of late diagnosis and rate of survival after HIV/AIDS diagnosis among Hispanics compared to other racial/ethnic groups. We performed a systematic review of the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles...

Global health education for medical students: New learning opportunities and strategies

Post Date: 
2012-01-17
Publication: 
Medical Teacher
Background: A new course was offered to introduce basic global health concepts to all first year Johns Hopkins medical students, that took advantage of new distance learning capacity to connect medical students in Baltimore with students and faculty in Uganda, Ethiopia, Pakistan and India. Aims:...

Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviors among transgender persons (Hijras) of Pune, India

Post Date: 
2012-01-15
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Background: The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Hijras (self-identified transgenders of South Asia), study associated risk factors, and compare the prevalence with that in heterosexual men and men having...

HIV transmitted drug resistance in adult and pediatric populations in Panama

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
Revista Panamerica de Salud Publica--Pan American Journal of Public Health
Country: 
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among adults in Panama by using a modified World Health Organization Threshold Survey (WHO-TS) and to investigate rates of initial resistance among HIV-positive infants in Panama. Methods: At the Gorgas Memorial Institute,...

Nutrition and disease progression pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART: Can good nutrition delay time to HAART and affect response to HAART

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Several studies have investigated a variety of nutritional supplementation interventions in adults with HIV. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence from 31 clinical trials that explore clinical benefits of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation in this population while...

Early mortality in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: We systematically reviewed observational studies of early mortality post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, as defined by the World Bank, to summarize what is known. Methods and Findings:...

Impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection on pregnancy and birth outcomes in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
AIDS Care
Country: 
Little is known about birth outcomes for HIV-infected women in India. We examine maternal and neonatal birth outcomes in HIV-infected women within the context of enhanced pre-natal care associated with a randomized clinical trial conducted in Pune, India. Birth outcomes of 212 HIV-infected pregnant...

Peer Health Workers and AIDS Care in Rakai, Uganda: A mixed methods operations research evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Country: 
Settings with limited health care workers are challenging environments for delivery of antiretroviral therapy. One strategy to address this human resource crisis is to task shift through training selected patients as peer health workers (PHWs) to provide care to other individuals receiving...

Impact of a mHealth intervention for peer health workers on AIDS Care in rural Uganda: a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial

Post Date: 
2011-11-15
Publication: 
AIDS and Behavior
Country: 
Mobile phone access in low and middle-income countries is rapidly expanding and offers an opportunity to leverage limited human resources for health. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial exploratory substudy on the impact of a mHealth (mobile phone) support...

Symptom screening among HIV-infected pregnant women is acceptable and has high negative predictive value for active tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2011-11-15
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Symptom screening is a recommended component of intensified case-finding (ICF) for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected individuals. Symptomatic individuals are further investigated to either exclude or diagnose pulmonary TB, thus reducing the number of individuals requiring costly...

Longitudinal analysis of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: A prospective cohort study

Post Date: 
2011-10-31
Publication: 
PLoS One
Country: 
Background : QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) is a tool for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. However, interpretation and utility of serial QFT-GIT testing of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contacts is not well understood. We compared TB prevalence between baseline and 6 months follow-up using...

Increased gonorrhea and chlamydia testing did not increase case detection in an HIV clinical cohort 1999 - 2007

Post Date: 
2011-10-15
Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Country: 
Objectives: Since 2003, U.S. organizations have recommended universal screening, rather than targeted screening, of HIV-infected persons for gonorrhea (NG) and Chlamydia (CT). Our objective was to determine whether wider testing resulting from these guidelines would produce an increase in NG/CT...

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Developing a Roadmap for Integration of TB/HIV Activities in Maternal and Child Health Setting

Post Date: 
2014-10-26
Presentation Location: 
Barcelona, Spain
Event & Convener: 
International Union for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 45th Union World Conference on Lung Health.
Speaker: Symposium “Empirical treatment for TB among HIV-positive people: who when, how?”

Global Health Opportunities: Conducting International Health Work from the US

Post Date: 
2014-10-14
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins Medical Student Global Health Elective
Lecture

Advancing Public Reporting and Surveillance of Healthcare-associated Infections

Post Date: 
2014-10-06
Presentation Location: 
Philadelphia, PA
Event & Convener: 
ID Week 2014
Presentation

Metabolic Complications over a Lifetime

Post Date: 
2014-09-27
Presentation Location: 
Cape Town, South Africa
Event & Convener: 
2014 Southern African HIV Clinician Society Conference
Invited Plenary Talk

Complex Cases in HIV/Metabolic Complications Management

Post Date: 
2014-09-25
Presentation Location: 
Cape Town, South Africa
Event & Convener: 
2014 Southern African HIV Clinician Society Conference
Case-based Discussion

TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2014-09-08
Presentation Location: 
Washington, DC
Event & Convener: 
Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Presentation. Conundrums in TB Symposium

Update on TB and OIs

Post Date: 
2014-09-04
Presentation Location: 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Event & Convener: 
Brazil-Hopkins AIDS Conference
Presentation

Body Mass Index (BMI) and Change in Levels of Immune Activation Post- ART Initiation in Diverse Low- and Middle-Income Settings

Post Date: 
2014-07-20
Presentation Location: 
Melbourne, Australia
Event & Convener: 
International AIDS Conference. AIDS 2014
Presentation.

Prevalence of Asymtpomatic Cryptococcemia and its Implications in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-07-20
Presentation Location: 
Melbourne, Australia
Event & Convener: 
International AIDS Conference. AIDS 2014
Presentation.

Vitamin D and TMEM16J Host Variants Associated with TB and Death in HIV Infected and Exposed Infants

Post Date: 
2014-06-13
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins Center for TB Research Annual Scientific Meeting
Presentation

Conducting HIV Research through the US and India HIV Clinical Trials Units

Post Date: 
2014-06-11
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
ICOHRTA-Fogarty Training Program
Presentation

Finding Your Passion to Do Your Best Work and Have Fun

Post Date: 
2014-05-31
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement. Kennedy Krieger Institute
Lecture

TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2014-05-12
Presentation Location: 
Mumbai, India
Event & Convener: 
Hinduja Hospital
Lecture

Grant Writing: The Clinician Researcher Perspective

Post Date: 
2014-05-10
Presentation Location: 
Pondicherry, India
Event & Convener: 
RePORT Meeting. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research
Lecture

Integrating Engineering and Technology in to Prevention

Post Date: 
2014-05-07
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Centers for Intervention and Services Research Meeting
Panel participation

RePORT India: Objectives and Future Directions

Post Date: 
2014-04-30
Presentation Location: 
Shanghai, China
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
TB Vaccine 4th Global Forum
Presentation

Inflammatory Markers and Incident TB: An International Case-Control Study

Post Date: 
2014-04-24
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Center for TB Research. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Lecture

JHU Entrepreneurship Week

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Medical and Educational Perspectives, Inc. JHU Entrepreneurship Week
Opening ceremony speaker

Identifying Global Trends and Gaps

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Medical and Educational Perspectives, Inc., Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Panel participant

Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in India

Post Date: 
2014-04-04
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Mylan HIV Course Series. JHU Global mHealth
Lecture

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