Research News

Sepsis among newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a big problem in India, and a complex one to untangle.

In a multi-country study, we are assessing the accuracy of the BD MAX rapid MDR-TB assay to detect rifampin and isoniazid resistance.

Clinical Research

We work with scientists and practitioners around the world to conduct clinical trials and observational studies that improve prevention and treatment of many grave health issues affecting resource-limited regions, including HIV and tuberculosis.
 
We have formal research partnerships with the following institutions:
 
 

Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2011-08-11
Publication: 
New England Journal of Medicine
Background: Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. Methods: In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1–positive and the other was HIV-1–negative; 54...

High rates of all-cause and gastroenteritis-related hospitalization morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed Indian infants

Post Date: 
2011-07-15
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants...

A comparison of online versus on-site training in health research methodology: A randomized study

Post Date: 
2011-06-17
Publication: 
BMC Medical Education
Country: 
Background: Distance learning may be useful for building health research capacity. However, evidence that it can improve knowledge and skills in health research, particularly in resource-poor settings, is limited. We compared the impact and acceptability of teaching two distinct content areas,...

Building a global health education network for clinical care and research: the benefits and challenges of distance learning tools

Post Date: 
2011-06-15
Publication: 
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Expanding the capacity for clinical care and health research is a global priority and a global challenge. In disenfranchised communities facing the largest burden of disease, whether they be in rural Africa or in urban US, there is a great need for more well-trained, competent and dedicated health...

Cost-effectiveness of new WHO recommendations for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a resource-limited setting

Post Date: 
2011-05-15
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Objective : Nigeria has high rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission. We sought to determine whether new WHO recommendations for long-course antiretroviral therapy (ART) prophylaxis are cost-effective for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV compared to short-course...

QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household tuberculosis contact

Post Date: 
2011-05-05
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting : Improved strategies are needed for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children in TB-endemic settings. Objective : To determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin testing (TST) and by the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test in children...

Mortality in HIV infected individuals in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-04-15
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Country: 
Background & Objectives: With the presence of HIV epidemic for more than two decades in India, rise in the number of HIV related deaths is expected. Data on mortality in HIV infected individuals from prospective studies are scanty in India. We report here data on mortality in a systematically...

Twelve month follow-up of the SWEN randomized controlled trials: Differential impact of extended-dose nevirapine on mother-to-child transmission and infant death by maternal CD4 cell count

Post Date: 
2011-03-27
Publication: 
AIDS Care
Objectives: We previously reported combined analysis of 6-week and 6-month endpoints of three randomized controlled trials [Six Week Extended Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) trials] that compared extended-dose nevirapine through 6 weeks of age to single-dose nevirapine to prevent HIV transmission via...

Predictors of retention among men attending STI clinics in HIV prevention programs and research: A case control study in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-03-11
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: Retention is critical in HIV prevention programs and clinical research. We studied retention in the three modeled scenarios of primary prevention programs, cohort studies and clinical trials to identify predictors of retention. Methodology/Principal Findings: Men attending Sexually...

Maternal tuberculosis: a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus

Post Date: 
2011-02-01
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, CD4 cell count, breast-feeding, antiretroviral use, and malaria are well-established factors associated with mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV; the role of maternal tuberculosis (TB), however, has not been well established...

Unstimulated primary CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-positive elite suppressors are fully susceptible to HIV-1 entry and productive infection

Post Date: 
2011-01-15
Publication: 
Journal of Virology
Elite controllers or suppressors (ES) are a group of HIV-1-infected individuals who maintain viral loads below the limit of detection of commercial assays for many years. The mechanisms responsible for this remarkable control are under intense study, with the hope of developing therapeutic vaccines...

Predictors of HIV testing among Latinos in Baltimore City

Post Date: 
2010-12-15
Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Country: 
To better understand access to HIV testing and prevention services experienced by Latinos, we evaluated data compiled through Baltimore City Health Department HIV outreach efforts in 2008. Of 6,443 clients served, Latinos were more likely male, young, and less-educated than non-Latinos. A greater...

Tuberculosis in women and children

Post Date: 
2010-12-15
Publication: 
The Lancet
Apart from improvement of tuberculosis control, innovative strategies to advance tuberculosis prevention and treatment in women and children would contribute to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 by reduction of the mortality rate in young children and women of reproductive age...

Gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing rates of HIV-infected men: low despute guidelines

Post Date: 
2010-11-15
Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Country: 
Objectives: Screening HIV-infected men for gonorrhea (GC) and Chlamydia (CT) may decrease HIV transmission and reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in female partners. This study determined GC/CT testing rates in a clinical HIV cohort before and after 2003 when the U.S. Centers for...

Stigmatizing attitudes and low levels of knowledge but high willingness to participate in HIV management: A community based survey of pharmacies in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2010-08-27
Publication: 
BMC Public Health
Country: 
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that the role of pharmacists in low-income settings be expanded to address the increasing complexity of HIV antiretroviral (ARV) and co-infection drug regimens. However, in many such settings including in India, many pharmacists and...

Quantitative analysis of a urine-based assay for lipoarabinomannan in patients with tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2010-08-15
Publication: 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Abstract Urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) detection is a promising approach for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB). In microbiologically confirmed TB patients, quantitative LAM detection results increased progressively with bacillary burden and immunosuppression. Patients with disseminated...

Unique aspects of the care of HIV-positive Latino patients living in the United States

Post Date: 
2010-08-15
Publication: 
Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Country: 
Latinos are disproportionately affected by HIV, with a higher risk of infection and a delayed presentation to care as compared to non-Hispanic whites. Over the last decade many Latinos, especially foreign-born migrants, have settled in regions of the country with historically low Latino...

Antiretroviral regimens for patients with HIV who fail first-line antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2010-06-16
Publication: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has reduced the morbidity and mortality of patients with HIV/AIDS. A common first-line ART regimen in low-resource settings includes a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) and two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs...

Effect of peer health workers on AIDS care in Rakai, Uganda: a cluster-randomized trial

Post Date: 
2010-06-02
Publication: 
PLOS
Country: 
Background: Human resource limitations are a challenge to the delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low-resource settings. We conducted a cluster randomized trial to assess the effect of community-based peer health workers (PHW) on AIDS care of adults in Rakai, Uganda. Methodology/Principal...

Developing WHO guidelines with pragmatic, structured, evidence-based processes: a case study

Post Date: 
2010-05-15
Publication: 
Global Public Health
Many guidelines, including those produced by the World Health Organisation (WHO), have failed to adhere to rigorous methodological standards. Operational examples of guideline development processes may provide important lessons learned to improve the rigour and quality of future guidelines. To this...

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Centro SOL: Salud and Opportunity for Latinos (and Beyond) A Case Study of How Passion and Diversity Drove Change at JHU

Post Date: 
2014-03-31
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Dr. James EK Hildreth Lecture: Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Lecture

mHealth: Overview and Opportunities for Novel Cancer Research

Post Date: 
2014-03-19
Presentation Location: 
Bethesda, MD
Event & Convener: 
National Cancer Institute DCEG Fellows’ Training Symposium. National Institutes of Health
Lecture

Managing Opportunistic Illnesses in 2014

Post Date: 
2014-03-18
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
24th Annual Clinical Care of the Patient with HIV Infection. Hopkins Center for AIDS Research
Presentation

Crucial Issues in Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT), Maternal Health, and HIV Treatment in Children

Post Date: 
2014-03-05
Presentation Location: 
Boston, MA
Event & Convener: 
21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI)
Oral Abstract Moderator

Delhi Strategy Roundtable

Post Date: 
2014-02-06
Presentation Location: 
New Delhi, India
Event & Convener: 
Global US India BioPharma and Healthcare Summit. US-India Chamber of Commerce and McKinsey & Company
Invited roundtable discussant

Update on Risk Factors for COPD-Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2014-02-01
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
ICONIC 2014
Presentation

Integrating Prevention and Treatment of HIV/TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2014-01-31
Presentation Location: 
Chennai, India
Event & Convener: 
International Science Symposium on HIV and Infectious Diseases
Presentation

Mobile Technologies for HIV Care and Prevention

Post Date: 
2013-11-20
Presentation Location: 
Atlanta, GA
Event & Convener: 
Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2013 Conference
Presentation

Overview of HIV-related Cardiovascular and Metabolic Complications in Non-US Settings and TB in Pregnant Women: Research Priorities

Post Date: 
2013-11-19
Presentation Location: 
Washington, DC
Event & Convener: 
ACTG Scientific Retreat
Invited Plenary Speaker

Conducting HIV/TB Research in India: Challenges and Opportunities

Post Date: 
2013-11-12
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Department of Medicine Grand Rounds. Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Presentation

Latent TB in India and Example Research Solutions for India

Post Date: 
2013-11-10
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Global Tuberculosis (TB) Clinical Management and Research. Johns Hopkins School of Nursing Course
Lecture

Global Health Opportunities: Conducting International Health Work from the US

Post Date: 
2013-11-05
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins Medical Student Global Health Elective
Lecture

Global Mobile Health

Post Date: 
2013-11-02
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Wireless Health 2013. Johns Hopkins Carey School of Business
Panelist

Risk Factors for Adult In-Patient Mortality for Tuberculosis in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2013-10-31
Presentation Location: 
Paris, France
Event & Convener: 
International Union for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 44th Union World Conference on Lung Health.
Presentation.

Vitamin D Insufficiency (VDI) is Common Among HIV-Infected Breastfeeding Mothers in Pune, India, but Not Associated with Risk of Postpartum TB

Post Date: 
2013-10-31
Presentation Location: 
Paris, France
Event & Convener: 
International Union for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 44th Union World Conference on Lung Health.
Presentation.

Recognizing the Need for HIV Prevention and Care in Emerging Latino Communities

Post Date: 
2013-10-09
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Center for AIDS Research. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Presentation

Laboratory Capacity Building for International Clinical Research: The JHU-BJMC Pune, India Example

Post Date: 
2013-09-11
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Inaugural Pathology Education Symposium. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine: Department of Pathology
Presentation

Medical Design Initiative: Low-Cost Solutions to Global Health Challenges

Post Date: 
2013-07-25
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Medical and Educational Perspectives (MEP) 2013. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Presentation

Towards Earlier Involvement of Children and Pregnant Women in Trials of New TB Drugs

Post Date: 
2013-05-23
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Expert Consensus Panel for Pregnant Women. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health
Group leader

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