Research News

In a large study in Uganda, Dr. Larry Chang and colleagues found that combination HIV prevention has population level implications, reducing new infections by 42%.

New study in Pune, India, aims to identify the profile of TB antibodies between mothers and infants, and to see if the presence of antibodies lowers risk of infant infection.

Clinical Research

We work with scientists and practitioners around the world to conduct clinical trials and observational studies that improve prevention and treatment of many grave health issues affecting resource-limited regions, including HIV and tuberculosis.
 
We have formal research partnerships with the following institutions:
 
 

Global health education for medical students: New learning opportunities and strategies

Post Date: 
2012-01-17
Publication: 
Medical Teacher
Background: A new course was offered to introduce basic global health concepts to all first year Johns Hopkins medical students, that took advantage of new distance learning capacity to connect medical students in Baltimore with students and faculty in Uganda, Ethiopia, Pakistan and India. Aims:...

Sexually transmitted infections and risk behaviors among transgender persons (Hijras) of Pune, India

Post Date: 
2012-01-15
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Background: The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Hijras (self-identified transgenders of South Asia), study associated risk factors, and compare the prevalence with that in heterosexual men and men having...

Early mortality in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC): a systematic review and meta-analysis

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: We systematically reviewed observational studies of early mortality post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) in Asia, Africa, and Central and South America, as defined by the World Bank, to summarize what is known. Methods and Findings:...

Impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection on pregnancy and birth outcomes in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
AIDS Care
Country: 
Little is known about birth outcomes for HIV-infected women in India. We examine maternal and neonatal birth outcomes in HIV-infected women within the context of enhanced pre-natal care associated with a randomized clinical trial conducted in Pune, India. Birth outcomes of 212 HIV-infected pregnant...

Peer Health Workers and AIDS Care in Rakai, Uganda: A mixed methods operations research evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Country: 
Settings with limited health care workers are challenging environments for delivery of antiretroviral therapy. One strategy to address this human resource crisis is to task shift through training selected patients as peer health workers (PHWs) to provide care to other individuals receiving...

HIV transmitted drug resistance in adult and pediatric populations in Panama

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
Revista Panamerica de Salud Publica--Pan American Journal of Public Health
Country: 
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant HIV among adults in Panama by using a modified World Health Organization Threshold Survey (WHO-TS) and to investigate rates of initial resistance among HIV-positive infants in Panama. Methods: At the Gorgas Memorial Institute,...

Nutrition and disease progression pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and post-HAART: Can good nutrition delay time to HAART and affect response to HAART

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
Publication: 
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Several studies have investigated a variety of nutritional supplementation interventions in adults with HIV. In this narrative review, we summarize the evidence from 31 clinical trials that explore clinical benefits of macronutrient and micronutrient supplementation in this population while...

Impact of a mHealth intervention for peer health workers on AIDS Care in rural Uganda: a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial

Post Date: 
2011-11-15
Publication: 
AIDS and Behavior
Country: 
Mobile phone access in low and middle-income countries is rapidly expanding and offers an opportunity to leverage limited human resources for health. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster-randomized trial exploratory substudy on the impact of a mHealth (mobile phone) support...

Symptom screening among HIV-infected pregnant women is acceptable and has high negative predictive value for active tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2011-11-15
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Symptom screening is a recommended component of intensified case-finding (ICF) for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected individuals. Symptomatic individuals are further investigated to either exclude or diagnose pulmonary TB, thus reducing the number of individuals requiring costly...

Longitudinal analysis of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: A prospective cohort study

Post Date: 
2011-10-31
Publication: 
PLoS One
Country: 
Background : QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) is a tool for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. However, interpretation and utility of serial QFT-GIT testing of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contacts is not well understood. We compared TB prevalence between baseline and 6 months follow-up using...

Increased gonorrhea and chlamydia testing did not increase case detection in an HIV clinical cohort 1999 - 2007

Post Date: 
2011-10-15
Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Country: 
Objectives: Since 2003, U.S. organizations have recommended universal screening, rather than targeted screening, of HIV-infected persons for gonorrhea (NG) and Chlamydia (CT). Our objective was to determine whether wider testing resulting from these guidelines would produce an increase in NG/CT...

Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2011-08-11
Publication: 
New England Journal of Medicine
Background: Antiretroviral therapy that reduces viral replication could limit the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. Methods: In nine countries, we enrolled 1763 couples in which one partner was HIV-1–positive and the other was HIV-1–negative; 54...

High rates of all-cause and gastroenteritis-related hospitalization morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed Indian infants

Post Date: 
2011-07-15
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants...

A comparison of online versus on-site training in health research methodology: A randomized study

Post Date: 
2011-06-17
Publication: 
BMC Medical Education
Country: 
Background: Distance learning may be useful for building health research capacity. However, evidence that it can improve knowledge and skills in health research, particularly in resource-poor settings, is limited. We compared the impact and acceptability of teaching two distinct content areas,...

Building a global health education network for clinical care and research: the benefits and challenges of distance learning tools

Post Date: 
2011-06-15
Publication: 
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
Expanding the capacity for clinical care and health research is a global priority and a global challenge. In disenfranchised communities facing the largest burden of disease, whether they be in rural Africa or in urban US, there is a great need for more well-trained, competent and dedicated health...

Cost-effectiveness of new WHO recommendations for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a resource-limited setting

Post Date: 
2011-05-15
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Objective : Nigeria has high rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission. We sought to determine whether new WHO recommendations for long-course antiretroviral therapy (ART) prophylaxis are cost-effective for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV compared to short-course...

QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children with household tuberculosis contact

Post Date: 
2011-05-05
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting : Improved strategies are needed for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children in TB-endemic settings. Objective : To determine the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin testing (TST) and by the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) test in children...

Mortality in HIV infected individuals in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-04-15
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Country: 
Background & Objectives: With the presence of HIV epidemic for more than two decades in India, rise in the number of HIV related deaths is expected. Data on mortality in HIV infected individuals from prospective studies are scanty in India. We report here data on mortality in a systematically...

Twelve month follow-up of the SWEN randomized controlled trials: Differential impact of extended-dose nevirapine on mother-to-child transmission and infant death by maternal CD4 cell count

Post Date: 
2011-03-27
Publication: 
AIDS Care
Objectives: We previously reported combined analysis of 6-week and 6-month endpoints of three randomized controlled trials [Six Week Extended Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) trials] that compared extended-dose nevirapine through 6 weeks of age to single-dose nevirapine to prevent HIV transmission via...

Predictors of retention among men attending STI clinics in HIV prevention programs and research: A case control study in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-03-11
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: Retention is critical in HIV prevention programs and clinical research. We studied retention in the three modeled scenarios of primary prevention programs, cohort studies and clinical trials to identify predictors of retention. Methodology/Principal Findings: Men attending Sexually...

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Identifying Global Trends and Gaps

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Medical and Educational Perspectives, Inc., Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Panel participant

Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in India

Post Date: 
2014-04-04
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Mylan HIV Course Series. JHU Global mHealth
Lecture

Centro SOL: Salud and Opportunity for Latinos (and Beyond) A Case Study of How Passion and Diversity Drove Change at JHU

Post Date: 
2014-03-31
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Dr. James EK Hildreth Lecture: Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Lecture

mHealth: Overview and Opportunities for Novel Cancer Research

Post Date: 
2014-03-19
Presentation Location: 
Bethesda, MD
Event & Convener: 
National Cancer Institute DCEG Fellows’ Training Symposium. National Institutes of Health
Lecture

Managing Opportunistic Illnesses in 2014

Post Date: 
2014-03-18
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
24th Annual Clinical Care of the Patient with HIV Infection. Hopkins Center for AIDS Research
Presentation

An Equity Analysis of Institutional Delivery Uptake and Maternal Mortality Reduction in Context of Cash Transfer Programme (JSY): Results from Nine States of India

Post Date: 
2014-03-10
Presentation Location: 
Cape Town, South Africa
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Third Global Symposium on Health Systems Research. Health Systems Global
Abstract Presenation. Randive B , San Sebastian M, De Costa A, Lindholm L.

Crucial Issues in Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT), Maternal Health, and HIV Treatment in Children

Post Date: 
2014-03-05
Presentation Location: 
Boston, MA
Event & Convener: 
21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI)
Oral Abstract Moderator

Delhi Strategy Roundtable

Post Date: 
2014-02-06
Presentation Location: 
New Delhi, India
Event & Convener: 
Global US India BioPharma and Healthcare Summit. US-India Chamber of Commerce and McKinsey & Company
Invited roundtable discussant

Update on Risk Factors for COPD-Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2014-02-01
Presentation Location: 
Pune, India
Event & Convener: 
ICONIC 2014
Presentation

Integrating Prevention and Treatment of HIV/TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2014-01-31
Presentation Location: 
Chennai, India
Event & Convener: 
International Science Symposium on HIV and Infectious Diseases
Presentation

Mobile Technologies for HIV Care and Prevention

Post Date: 
2013-11-20
Presentation Location: 
Atlanta, GA
Event & Convener: 
Association of Nurses in AIDS Care 2013 Conference
Presentation

Overview of HIV-related Cardiovascular and Metabolic Complications in Non-US Settings and TB in Pregnant Women: Research Priorities

Post Date: 
2013-11-19
Presentation Location: 
Washington, DC
Event & Convener: 
ACTG Scientific Retreat
Invited Plenary Speaker

Conducting HIV/TB Research in India: Challenges and Opportunities

Post Date: 
2013-11-12
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Department of Medicine Grand Rounds. Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
Presentation

Latent TB in India and Example Research Solutions for India

Post Date: 
2013-11-10
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Global Tuberculosis (TB) Clinical Management and Research. Johns Hopkins School of Nursing Course
Lecture

Global Health Opportunities: Conducting International Health Work from the US

Post Date: 
2013-11-05
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins Medical Student Global Health Elective
Lecture

Global Mobile Health

Post Date: 
2013-11-02
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Wireless Health 2013. Johns Hopkins Carey School of Business
Panelist

Risk Factors for Adult In-Patient Mortality for Tuberculosis in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2013-10-31
Presentation Location: 
Paris, France
Event & Convener: 
International Union for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 44th Union World Conference on Lung Health.
Presentation.

Vitamin D Insufficiency (VDI) is Common Among HIV-Infected Breastfeeding Mothers in Pune, India, but Not Associated with Risk of Postpartum TB

Post Date: 
2013-10-31
Presentation Location: 
Paris, France
Event & Convener: 
International Union for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 44th Union World Conference on Lung Health.
Presentation.

Recognizing the Need for HIV Prevention and Care in Emerging Latino Communities

Post Date: 
2013-10-09
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Country: 
Event & Convener: 
Center for AIDS Research. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Presentation

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