Research News

Indian mother and child

Use of kerosene cooking fuel is positively associated with TB in women and children in our analysis using reported sources of exposure.

Home visit in India

PLoS One: Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV program in India is one of the largest in the world, and it relies on outreach workers. Our study looked at challenges and opportunities for outreach workers.

Clinical Research

Leadership
Dr. Amita Gupta of Johns Hopkins is Principal Investigator for the Indo-JHU Clinical Research Partnership based out of CCGHE. Research is directed locally in India out of the BJGMC-JHU Clinical Research Site by Dr. Vidya Mave, a Hopkins faculty member who lives in Pune. Dr. Nikhil Gupte is the Lead Biostatistician and Deputy Director and Dr. Nishi Suryavanshi is Clinical Site Coordinator and Deputy Director. Research is conducted in collaboration with the following institutions:
 
 

Taking the long view on CREATE studies' finding

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
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Publication: 
The Lancet Infectious Disease
In the past 10 years, the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS TB Epidemic (CREATE) has done three large trials exploring new strategies to control HIV-related tuberculosis. Recognising that the global strategy for tuberculosis control of a decade ago (mainly directly observed short-course...

Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in HIV: evidence from a clinical cohort in Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
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Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Objective: To delineate the association between baseline socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) in urban Uganda. Design: Retrospective cohort study nested in an antiretroviral...

Gender-related barriers and delays in accessing tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services - Part 2: a systematic review of qualitative studies

Post Date: 
2014-05-11
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health problem with known gender-related (male versus female) disparities. We reviewed the qualitative evidence (written/spoken narrative) for gender-related differences limiting TB service access from symptom onset to treatment...

Quality of obstetric referral services in India's JSY cash transfer programme for institutional births: a study from Madhya Pradesh province

Post Date: 
2014-05-08
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Publication: 
PLoS One
Abstract Background: India launched JSY cash transfer programme to increase access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) by incentivising in-facility births. This increased in-facility births from 30%in 2005 to 73% in 2012 however, decline in maternal mortality follows a secular trend...

Barriers and delays in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services: does gender matter

Post Date: 
2014-04-28
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem with known gender-related disparities. We reviewed the quantitative evidence for gender-related differences in accessing TB services from symptom onset to treatment initiation. Methods: Following a systematic review process, we:...

Change in Vitamin D levels occurs early after antiretroviral therapy initiation and depends on treatment regimen in resource-limited settings

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D levels,...

The evolving role of advocacy in tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2014-04-02
Publication: 
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Tuberculosis advocacy has changed the disease from a silent epidemic to one with many voices that seek increased political will and investment in research.1 Tuberculosis advocacy has gained strength as a mechanism to improve research, increase access to new methods to fight tuberculosis, and...

Pregnancy differentially impacts performance of latent tuberculosis diagnostics in a high-burden setting

Post Date: 
2014-03-21
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Targeted screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) in vulnerable populations is a recommended TB control strategy. Pregnant women are at high risk for developing TB and likely to access healthcare, making pregnancy an important screening opportunity in developing countries. The...

Biomarkers for sepsis: a review with special attention to India

Post Date: 
2014-03-19
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Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Sepsis is a serious infection and still a common cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings such as India. Even when microbiologic diagnostics are available, bacteremia is only identified in a proportion of patients who present with sepsis and bloodstream infections. Biomarkers...

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
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Publication: 
Vaccine
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

Field evaluation of PIMA point-of-care CD4 testing in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-03-10
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Objective: To assess the accuracy of PIMA Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 testing in rural Rakai, Uganda. Methods: 903 HIV positive persons attending field clinics provided a venous blood sample assessed on site using PIMA analyzers per manufacturer's specifications. The venous samples were then run on...

The role of viral introductions in sustaining community-based HIV epidemics in rural Uganda: evidence from spatial clustering, phylogenics, and egocentric transmission models

Post Date: 
2014-03-04
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities—home to two-thirds of the African population—is driven by intra-community...

Modifiable risk factors associated with tuberculosis disease in children in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-02-15
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting: India accounts for the largest burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, with 26% of the world's cases. Objective: To assess the association between novel modifiable risk factors and TB in Indian children. Design: Cases were children aged ≤ 5 years with confirmed/probable TB based on World...

Mortality and long-term virologic outcomes in children and infants treated with lopinavir/ritonavir

Post Date: 
2013-12-15
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Publication: 
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Background: There is scant data on young children receiving protease inhibitor-based therapy in real-life resource-limited settings and on the optimal timing of therapy among children who survive infancy. Our aim was to evaluate outcomes at the Hospital del Niño, Panama, where children have been...

Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-11-28
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Publication: 
AIDS
Objective : Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people...

Pediatric tuberculosis in young children in India: a prospective study

Post Date: 
2013-11-11
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Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Background: India has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens globally. However, few studies have focused on TB in young children, a vulnerable population, where lack of early diagnosis results in poor outcomes. Methods: Young children (≤ 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively enrolled...

The Exposure Assessment in current time (EXACT) study: implementation, feasibility and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users

Post Date: 
2013-11-06
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Publication: 
AIDS Research and Treatment
Objective: We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants...

Cost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosing pulmonary Tuberculosis in the United States

Post Date: 
2013-10-15
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting : Conventional approaches to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and resistance testing are slow. The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is an emerging molecular diagnostic assay for rapid TB diagnosis, offering results within 2 hours. However, the cost-effectiveness of implementing Xpert in settings with low TB...

Intensified case-finding of latent tuberculosis infection among the Baltimore City Hispanic population

Post Date: 
2013-08-15
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Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Foreign-born immigrants are at high risk for latent TB infection (LTBI). In conjunction with the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD), student volunteers conducted intensified LTBI case-finding (ICF) using tuberculin skin testing (TST) in the Hispanic community from 2006-2010. We sought to...

India’s new policy to protect research participants

Post Date: 
2013-07-31
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Publication: 
The BMJ
Editorial Introduction: India, the country with the largest disease burden in the world,1 is now a major international hub for clinical research. However, a recent policy that was meant to mitigate important ethical concerns may have profound and unintended consequences for public health and may...

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IMPAACT TB Scientific Committee 5 year Priorities and Plans

Post Date: 
2014-12-03
Gupta A. IMPAACT TB Scientific Committee 5 year Priorities and Plans. IMPAACT Network External Review. NIH. Washington, DC.

Conducting International Clinical Trials: Some Important Considerations

Post Date: 
2014-11-19
Gupta A. Conducting International Clinical Trials: Some Important Considerations. Johns Hopkins Clinical Investigation Course. Baltimore, MD.

Barriers and Delays in TB Diagnosis and Treatment: Does Gender Matter?

Post Date: 
2014-11-17
Gupta, A. Barriers and Delays in TB Diagnosis and Treatment: Does Gender Matter? PATH Gender & TB Experts Meeting. Washington, DC.

GETHealth Summit to Bridge Health Workforce Gap in Developing Countries

Post Date: 
2014-11-10
Bollinger, R. GETHealth Summit to Bridge Health Workforce Gap in Developing Countries. GETHealth Summit. Dublin, Ireland.

Developing a Roadmap for Integration of TB/HIV Activities in Maternal and Child Health Setting

Post Date: 
2014-10-26
Gupta, A. Developing a Roadmap for Integration of TB/HIV Activities in Maternal and Child Health Setting. International Union for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 45th Union World Conference on Lung Health. Barcelona, Spain.

Global Health Opportunities: Conducting International Health Work from the US

Post Date: 
2014-10-14
Gupta, A. Global Health Opportunities: Conducting International Health Work from the US. Johns Hopkins Medical Student Global Health Elective. Baltimore, MD.

Advancing Public Reporting and Surveillance of Healthcare-associated Infections

Post Date: 
2014-10-06
Bollinger, R. Advancing Public Reporting and Surveillance of Healthcare-associated Infections. ID Week 2014. Philadelphia, PA. 2014.

Metabolic Complications over a Lifetime

Post Date: 
2014-09-27
Gupta, A. Metabolic Complications over a Lifetime. 2014 Southern African HIV Clinician Society Conference. Cape Town, South Africa. 2014.

Complex Cases in HIV/Metabolic Complications Management

Post Date: 
2014-09-25
Gupta, A. Complex Cases in HIV/Metabolic Complications Management. 2014 Southern African HIV Clinician Society Conference. Cape Town, South Africa. 2014.

TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2014-09-08
Gupta, A. TB in Pregnancy. Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Washington, DC.

Update on TB and OIs

Post Date: 
2014-09-04
Gupta, A. Update on TB and OIs. Brazil-Hopkins AIDS Conference. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Body Mass Index (BMI) and Change in Levels of Immune Activation Post- ART Initiation in Diverse Low- and Middle-Income Settings

Post Date: 
2014-07-20
Mave, V. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Change in Levels of Immune Activation Post- ART Initiation in Diverse Low- and Middle-Income Settings. International AIDS Conference. AIDS 2014. Melbourne, Australia. 2014.

Prevalence of Asymtpomatic Cryptococcemia and its Implications in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-07-20
Mave, V. Prevalence of Asymtpomatic Cryptococcemia and its Implications in Pune, India. International AIDS Conference. AIDS 2014. Melbourne, Australia. 2014.

Vitamin D and TMEM16J Host Variants Associated with TB and Death in HIV Infected and Exposed Infants

Post Date: 
2014-06-13
Gupta, A. Vitamin D and TMEM16J Host Variants Associated with TB and Death in HIV Infected and Exposed Infants. Johns Hopkins Center for TB Research Annual Scientific Meeting. Baltimore, MD.

Conducting HIV Research through the US and India HIV Clinical Trials Units

Post Date: 
2014-06-11
Gupta, A. Conducting HIV Research through the US and India HIV Clinical Trials Units. ICOHRTA-Fogarty Training Program. Baltimore, MD.

Finding Your Passion to Do Your Best Work and Have Fun

Post Date: 
2014-05-31
Page, K. Finding Your Passion to Do Your Best Work and Have Fun. Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement. Kennedy Krieger Institute. Baltimore, MD.

TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2014-05-12
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Gupta, A. TB in Pregnancy. Hinduja Hospital. Mumbai, India.

Grant Writing: The Clinician Researcher Perspective

Post Date: 
2014-05-10
Gupta, A. Grant Writing: The Clinician Researcher Perspective. RePORT Meeting. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research. Pondicherry, India.

Integrating Engineering and Technology in to Prevention

Post Date: 
2014-05-07
Chang, L. Integrating Engineering and Technology in to Prevention. Centers for Intervention and Services Research Meeting. Baltimore, MD.

RePORT India: Objectives and Future Directions

Post Date: 
2014-04-30
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Mave, V. RePORT India: Objectives and Future Directions. TB Vaccine 4th Global Forum. Shanghai, China.

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