Research News

Indian mother and child

Use of kerosene cooking fuel is positively associated with TB in women and children in our analysis using reported sources of exposure.

BMC Infectious Diseases: Our survey among TB patients' household contacts with evidence of recent exposure found that knowledge is poor and families are confused about disease transmission.

Clinical Research

Leadership
Dr. Amita Gupta of Johns Hopkins is Principal Investigator for the Indo-JHU Clinical Research Partnership based out of CCGHE. Research is directed locally in India out of the BJGMC-JHU Clinical Research Site by Dr. Vidya Mave, a Hopkins faculty member who lives in Pune. Dr. Nikhil Gupte is the Lead Biostatistician and Deputy Director and Dr. Nishi Suryavanshi is Clinical Site Coordinator and Deputy Director. Research is conducted in collaboration with the following institutions:
 
 

Biomarkers for sepsis: a review with special attention to India

Post Date: 
2014-03-19
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Sepsis is a serious infection and still a common cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings such as India. Even when microbiologic diagnostics are available, bacteremia is only identified in a proportion of patients who present with sepsis and bloodstream infections. Biomarkers...

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Vaccine
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

Field evaluation of PIMA point-of-care CD4 testing in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-03-10
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
PLOS One
Objective: To assess the accuracy of PIMA Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 testing in rural Rakai, Uganda. Methods: 903 HIV positive persons attending field clinics provided a venous blood sample assessed on site using PIMA analyzers per manufacturer's specifications. The venous samples were then run on...

The role of viral introductions in sustaining community-based HIV epidemics in rural Uganda: evidence from spatial clustering, phylogenics, and egocentric transmission models

Post Date: 
2014-03-04
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities—home to two-thirds of the African population—is driven by intra-community...

Modifiable risk factors associated with tuberculosis disease in children in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-02-15
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting: India accounts for the largest burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, with 26% of the world's cases. Objective: To assess the association between novel modifiable risk factors and TB in Indian children. Design: Cases were children aged ≤ 5 years with confirmed/probable TB based on World...

Mortality and long-term virologic outcomes in children and infants treated with lopinavir/ritonavir

Post Date: 
2013-12-15
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Background: There is scant data on young children receiving protease inhibitor-based therapy in real-life resource-limited settings and on the optimal timing of therapy among children who survive infancy. Our aim was to evaluate outcomes at the Hospital del Niño, Panama, where children have been...

Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-11-28
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
AIDS
Objective : Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people...

Pediatric tuberculosis in young children in India: a prospective study

Post Date: 
2013-11-11
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Background: India has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens globally. However, few studies have focused on TB in young children, a vulnerable population, where lack of early diagnosis results in poor outcomes. Methods: Young children (≤ 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively enrolled...

The Exposure Assessment in current time (EXACT) study: implementation, feasibility and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users

Post Date: 
2013-11-06
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
AIDS Research and Treatment
Objective: We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants...

Cost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosing pulmonary Tuberculosis in the United States

Post Date: 
2013-10-15
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting : Conventional approaches to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and resistance testing are slow. The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is an emerging molecular diagnostic assay for rapid TB diagnosis, offering results within 2 hours. However, the cost-effectiveness of implementing Xpert in settings with low TB...

Intensified case-finding of latent tuberculosis infection among the Baltimore City Hispanic population

Post Date: 
2013-08-15
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Foreign-born immigrants are at high risk for latent TB infection (LTBI). In conjunction with the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD), student volunteers conducted intensified LTBI case-finding (ICF) using tuberculin skin testing (TST) in the Hispanic community from 2006-2010. We sought to...

India’s new policy to protect research participants

Post Date: 
2013-07-31
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
The BMJ
Editorial Introduction: India, the country with the largest disease burden in the world,1 is now a major international hub for clinical research. However, a recent policy that was meant to mitigate important ethical concerns may have profound and unintended consequences for public health and may...

Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa

Post Date: 
2013-07-29
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Background : The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference laboratories...

A qualitative study of barriers to enrollment into free HIV care: perspectives of never-in-care HIV-positive patients and providers in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-07-23
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Background: Early entry into HIV care is low in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Rakai, about a third (31.5%) of HIV-positive clients who knew their serostatus did not enroll into free care services. This qualitative study explored barriers to entry into care from HIV-positive clients who had never enrolled...

Patterns of TB drug-resistance in a tertiary care facility in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2013-07-18
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Clinical Microbiology
Introduction:Globally, the emergence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) (defined as resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) and extensively drug resistant (XDR-TB) (defined as resistance to INH, RIF, any fluoroquinolone and to at least one of the three injectable second line...

Screening for pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol A5253

Post Date: 
2013-04-15
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
   |   
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Background: Improved tuberculosis (TB) screening is urgently needed for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Methods: An observational, multi-country, cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients to compare a standardized diagnostic evaluation (SDE) for TB with standard of care (...

Changes in HIV-1 subtypes B and C genital tract RNA in women and men after initiation of antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2013-03-26
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1...

Low tuberculosis knowledge among HIV-infected patients in a high HIV prevalence region within Southeast India

Post Date: 
2013-03-21
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Setting: A private multispecialty hospital in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: A survey of knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions adapted from a pretested questionnaire was administered to 128 HIV-infected adults, from July to August 2008.

Correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among participants enrolled in a cohort study in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2013-03-15
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
International Health
Background: Optimum comprehension of informed consent by research participants is essential yet challenging. This study explored correlates of lower comprehension of informed consent among 1334 participants of a cohort study aimed at estimating HIV incidence in Pune, India. Methods: As part of the...

Availability of treatment for eclampsia in public health institutions in Maharashtra, India

Post Date: 
2013-03-15
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Abstract Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are common causes of maternal deaths worldwide and more so in developing countries. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is now the most-recommended drug of choice to treat these conditions. Despite favourable policies for the use of MgSO4 treatment in India,...

Pages

GETHealth Summit to Bridge Health Workforce Gap in Developing Countries

Post Date: 
2014-11-10
Presentation Location: 
Dublin, Ireland
Event & Convener: 
GETHealth Summit
Opening Ceremony Speaker

Developing a Roadmap for Integration of TB/HIV Activities in Maternal and Child Health Setting

Post Date: 
2014-10-26
Presentation Location: 
Barcelona, Spain
Event & Convener: 
International Union for Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 45th Union World Conference on Lung Health.
Speaker: Symposium “Empirical treatment for TB among HIV-positive people: who when, how?”

Global Health Opportunities: Conducting International Health Work from the US

Post Date: 
2014-10-14
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins Medical Student Global Health Elective
Lecture

Advancing Public Reporting and Surveillance of Healthcare-associated Infections

Post Date: 
2014-10-06
Presentation Location: 
Philadelphia, PA
Event & Convener: 
ID Week 2014
Presentation

Metabolic Complications over a Lifetime

Post Date: 
2014-09-27
Presentation Location: 
Cape Town, South Africa
Event & Convener: 
2014 Southern African HIV Clinician Society Conference
Invited Plenary Talk

Complex Cases in HIV/Metabolic Complications Management

Post Date: 
2014-09-25
Presentation Location: 
Cape Town, South Africa
Event & Convener: 
2014 Southern African HIV Clinician Society Conference
Case-based Discussion

TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2014-09-08
Presentation Location: 
Washington, DC
Event & Convener: 
Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Presentation. Conundrums in TB Symposium

Update on TB and OIs

Post Date: 
2014-09-04
Presentation Location: 
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Event & Convener: 
Brazil-Hopkins AIDS Conference
Presentation

Body Mass Index (BMI) and Change in Levels of Immune Activation Post- ART Initiation in Diverse Low- and Middle-Income Settings

Post Date: 
2014-07-20
Presentation Location: 
Melbourne, Australia
Event & Convener: 
International AIDS Conference. AIDS 2014
Presentation.

Prevalence of Asymtpomatic Cryptococcemia and its Implications in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-07-20
Presentation Location: 
Melbourne, Australia
Event & Convener: 
International AIDS Conference. AIDS 2014
Presentation.

Vitamin D and TMEM16J Host Variants Associated with TB and Death in HIV Infected and Exposed Infants

Post Date: 
2014-06-13
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Johns Hopkins Center for TB Research Annual Scientific Meeting
Presentation

Conducting HIV Research through the US and India HIV Clinical Trials Units

Post Date: 
2014-06-11
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
ICOHRTA-Fogarty Training Program
Presentation

Finding Your Passion to Do Your Best Work and Have Fun

Post Date: 
2014-05-31
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Research Initiatives for Student Enhancement. Kennedy Krieger Institute
Lecture

TB in Pregnancy

Post Date: 
2014-05-12
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Presentation Location: 
Mumbai, India
Event & Convener: 
Hinduja Hospital
Lecture

Grant Writing: The Clinician Researcher Perspective

Post Date: 
2014-05-10
Presentation Location: 
Pondicherry, India
Event & Convener: 
RePORT Meeting. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research
Lecture

Integrating Engineering and Technology in to Prevention

Post Date: 
2014-05-07
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Centers for Intervention and Services Research Meeting
Panel participation

RePORT India: Objectives and Future Directions

Post Date: 
2014-04-30
   |   
Countries: 
Presentation Location: 
Shanghai, China
Event & Convener: 
TB Vaccine 4th Global Forum
Presentation

Inflammatory Markers and Incident TB: An International Case-Control Study

Post Date: 
2014-04-24
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Center for TB Research. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Lecture

JHU Entrepreneurship Week

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Medical and Educational Perspectives, Inc. JHU Entrepreneurship Week
Opening ceremony speaker

Identifying Global Trends and Gaps

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Presentation Location: 
Baltimore, MD
Event & Convener: 
Medical and Educational Perspectives, Inc., Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
Panel participant

Pages