Publications

HIV prevention efforts and incidence in HIV in Uganda

Post Date: 
2017-11-30
Publication: 
New England Journal of Medicine
Country: 
In a large study in Uganda, Dr. Larry Chang and colleagues found that combination HIV prevention has population level implications, reducing new infections by 42%.

Impact of a community health worker HIV treatment and prevention intervention in an HIV hotspot fishing community in Rakai, Uganda (mLAKE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Post Date: 
2017-10-23
Publication: 
Trials
Country: 
Abstract Background: Effective yet practical strategies are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in high-HIV-prevalence hotspots. We designed a community-based intervention called "Health Scouts" to promote uptake and adherence to HIV services in a...

Risk factors for early mortality on antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2017-10-23
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Background: Many HIV-infected individuals present with advanced HIV disease. These patients are at high risk of death after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, but risk factors for death in these patients are unclear. Methods: We used data from a multisite randomized trial comparing empiric vs...

Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Post Date: 
2017-09-16
Publication: 
The Lancet
Abstract Background: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can...

Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Post Date: 
2017-09-16
Publication: 
The Lancet
Abstract Background: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a...

Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Post Date: 
2017-09-12
Publication: 
The Lancet
Abstract Background: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the...

Challenges in the evaluation of interventions to improve engagement along the HIV care continuum in the United States: a systematic review

Post Date: 
2017-07-17
Publication: 
AIDS and Behavior
Country: 
Dr. Maunank Shah & colleagues review interventions to keep HIV patients linked to care.

Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Post Date: 
2017-07-15
Publication: 
The Lancet
Abstract Background: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only...

Cardiovascular risk in an HIV-infected population in India

Post Date: 
2017-07-03
Publication: 
Heart Asia
Country: 
Findings: HIV+ Indian patients who had cardiovascular disease at a younger age appear to be at imminent risk for morbidity.

A qualitative study exploring factors influencing clinical decision-making for influenza-like illness in Solapur city, Maharashtra, India

Post Date: 
2017-07-03
Publication: 
Anthropology and Medicine
Country: 
Abstract The co-existence of different types of medical systems (medical pluralism) is a typical feature of India's healthcare system. For conditions such as influenza-like illness (ILI), where non-specific disease signs/symptoms exist, clinical reasoning in the context of medical pluralism becomes...

Constituent variation in smokeless tobacco purchased in Mumbai, India

Post Date: 
2017-07-01
Publication: 
Tobacco Regulatory Science
Country: 
Objectives: Worldwide, smokeless tobacco products vary greatly in their formulations and chemical composition. Understanding of toxic and carcinogenic constituent variations in such products can provide valuable insights for the development of effective tobacco control policies. In this study, we...

Household food insecurity is associated with low interferon-gamma levels in pregnant Indian women

Post Date: 
2017-07-01
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Country: 
Objective: To determine the association between household food insecurity and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in pregnancy. Design: Pregnant women in India were administered the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) questionnaire and underwent an IFN-γ release assay. Logistic regression...

Vitamin A and D deficiencies associated with incident tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in multinational case-cohort study

Post Date: 
2017-07-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Introduction: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized...

Maternal syphilis: An independent risk factor for mother to infant human immunodeficiency virus transmission

Post Date: 
2017-06-15
Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Country: 
Abstract Syphilis is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus acquisition and sexual transmission; we examined impact on human immunodeficiency virus mother-to-child transmission among mother-infant pairs enrolled in the India Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine study. Maternal syphilis...

Presence of human hepegivirus-1 in a cohort of people who inject drugs

Post Date: 
2017-06-07
Publication: 
Annals of Internal Medicine
Findings on the sensitivity of next-generation metagenomic sequencing for discovery of new viral infections.

Tuberculosis screening among persons with diabetes mellitus in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2017-06-02
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases tuberculosis (TB) risk, and there is increasing concern over the public health implications of the convergence of these two epidemics. Screening for TB among people with DM is now recommended in India. Methods: People with DM seeking care at a large...

Pulmonary infections in pregnancy

Post Date: 
2017-06-01
Publication: 
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Clinical review from Drs. Amita Gupta & Jyoti Mathad on improving tuberculosis treatment outcomes for pregnant women.

The impact of preexposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men: An individual-based model

Post Date: 
2017-06-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Objectives Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended for preventing HIV infection among individuals at high risk, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Although its individual-level efficacy is proven, questions remain regarding population-level impact of PrEP implementation. Design We...

Design and implementation of a community health worker HIV treatment and prevention intervention in an HIV hot spot fishing community in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2017-05-22
Publication: 
Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Country: 
Abstract Innovative approaches are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in HIV hot spots. Here, we detail our design, training approach, and early implementation experiences of a community-based HIV intervention called "health scouts." The...

Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2017-04-27
Publication: 
Handbook of Tuberculosis
This chapter addresses the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis highlighting drug classes, recommended regimens, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interactions, and practical aspects of monitoring, The principles of treatment of latent tuberculosis are also addressed including whom to treat, what...

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