Publications

Pre-antiretroviral therapy selenium status predicts WHO stages 3, 4 or death but not virologic failure post-antiretroviral therapy

Post Date: 
2014-11-13
Publication: 
Nutrients
A case-cohort study, within a multi-country trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficacy (Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource Limited Settings (PEARLS)), was conducted to determine if pre-ART serum selenium deficiency is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus...

Complications of tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2014-10-15
Publication: 
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Purpose of review : Diagnosis and management of tuberculosis (TB) remains challenging and complex because of the heterogeneity of disease presentations. Despite effective treatment, TB disease can lead to significant short-and long-term health consequences. We review potential acute and chronic...

High proportion of indeterminate QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube results in an inpatient population are related to host factors and pre-analytical steps

Post Date: 
2014-09-19
Publication: 
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT) can be used as an alternative to tuberculin skin testing (TST) for the targeted testing of latent tuberculosis. Due to many shortcomings with TST, QFT-GIT usage is increasing. QFT-GIT implementation in the inpatient setting remains unclear...

Source case investigation for children with TB disease in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-08-27
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Country: 
Setting. Contact tracing is broadly encouraged for tuberculosis (TB) control. In many high-burden countries, however, little effort is made to identify contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients. This failure puts children, many of whom live in poor crowded communities, at special risk. Objectives. To...

Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

Post Date: 
2014-08-15
Publication: 
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and...

Editorial commentary: Xpert MTB/RIF testing for individuals with presumed tuberculosis: implications for infection control and rapid tuberculosis detection in the United States.

Post Date: 
2014-08-04
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Despite recent declines in incidence, tuberculosis remains a significant public health problem in the United States, with almost 10 000 new cases each year. As the disease becomes less common in the United States, diagnostic delays occur because of diverse clinical presentations and suboptimal...

Cell phone utilization among foreign-born latinos: a promising tool for dissemination of health and HIV information

Post Date: 
2014-08-01
Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Country: 
Latinos in the U.S. are disproportionately affected by HIV and are at risk for late presentation to care. Between June 2011 and January 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 209 Baltimore Latinos at community-based venues to evaluate the feasibility of using communication technology (ICT)-...

Impact of maternal hepatitis B virus coinfection on mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Post Date: 
2014-07-15
Publication: 
HIV Medicine
Country: 
Objectives: Despite high hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in various resource-limited settings (RLSs), the impact of maternal HIV/HBV coinfection on infant health outcomes has not been defined. We aimed to assess the prevalence of HBV coinfection among HIV-infected pregnant women and its impact...

25-Hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency and deficiency is associated with HIV disease progression and virological failure post-antiretroviral therapy initiation in diverse multinational settings

Post Date: 
2014-07-15
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) has been associated with increased HIV mortality, but prospective studies assessing treatment outcomes after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation in resource-limited settings are lacking. Methods: A case-cohort study (N = 411) was nested...

Blood stream infections

Post Date: 
2014-07-01
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Blood stream infection (BSI) is one of the most devastating preventable complications in Critical Care Units. It has far-reaching consequences resulting in prolonged length of hospital-stay, high costs to the individual and exchequer, and, in many instances, loss of life. Although exact rates of...

Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2014-07-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Objective : In settings of high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis control and patient management are hindered by lack of accurate, rapid tuberculosis diagnostic tests that can be performed at point-of-care. The Determine TB LAM Ag (TB LAM) test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test for detection...

Optimisation of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative to address African health-care challenges

Post Date: 
2014-06-25
Publication: 
The Lancet Global Health
Country: 
The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) is an innovative and potentially transformative 5-year programme, established by the US Government in 2010, to increase the number of doctors to meet crucial human resource needs in sub-Saharan Africa.1 MEPI allows African institutions that are...

Challenges to disclosure of HIV status to perinatally infected children: a study of caregiver perspectives in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-06-15
Publication: 
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Effective guidelines around disclosure of HIV status are lacking and limited data from India reveal low rates of HIV disclosure to perinatally infected children. This study, conducted in Pune, India, attempts to understand the experiences of caregivers of perinatally infected children around the...

Cost-effectiveness of rapid susceptibility testing against second line drugs for tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2014-06-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Background : Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against second-line tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is essential for improving outcomes among multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases. Objective : To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of rapid DST for...

Comparative performance of urinary lipoarabinomannan assays and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected individuals

Post Date: 
2014-06-01
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Background : Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but have suboptimal sensitivity when used individually in HIV-positive patients. The yield of these tests used in combination for the diagnosis of active TB among HIV-infected TB...

Taking the long view on CREATE studies' finding

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
Publication: 
The Lancet Infectious Disease
In the past 10 years, the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS TB Epidemic (CREATE) has done three large trials exploring new strategies to control HIV-related tuberculosis. Recognising that the global strategy for tuberculosis control of a decade ago (mainly directly observed short-course...

Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in HIV: evidence from a clinical cohort in Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Country: 
Objective: To delineate the association between baseline socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and mortality and lost to follow-up (LTFU) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals enrolled in antiretroviral therapy (ART) in urban Uganda. Design: Retrospective cohort study nested in an antiretroviral...

A consortium approach to competency-based undergraduate medical education in Uganda: process, opportunities and challenges

Post Date: 
2014-05-15
Publication: 
Education for Health
Country: 
Background: Uganda, like the rest of Africa, is faced with serious health challenges including human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), other infectious diseases and increasing non-communicable diseases, yet it has a significant shortage of health...

Gender-related barriers and delays in accessing tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services - Part 2: a systematic review of qualitative studies

Post Date: 
2014-05-11
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health problem with known gender-related (male versus female) disparities. We reviewed the qualitative evidence (written/spoken narrative) for gender-related differences limiting TB service access from symptom onset to treatment...

Quality of obstetric referral services in India's JSY cash transfer programme for institutional births: a study from Madhya Pradesh province

Post Date: 
2014-05-08
Publication: 
PLoS One
Country: 
Abstract Background: India launched JSY cash transfer programme to increase access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) by incentivising in-facility births. This increased in-facility births from 30%in 2005 to 73% in 2012 however, decline in maternal mortality follows a secular trend...

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