Publications

Gender-related barriers and delays in accessing tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services - Part 2: a systematic review of qualitative studies

Post Date: 
2014-05-11
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant global public health problem with known gender-related (male versus female) disparities. We reviewed the qualitative evidence (written/spoken narrative) for gender-related differences limiting TB service access from symptom onset to treatment...

Barriers and delays in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services: does gender matter

Post Date: 
2014-04-28
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem with known gender-related disparities. We reviewed the quantitative evidence for gender-related differences in accessing TB services from symptom onset to treatment initiation. Methods: Following a systematic review process, we:...

Change in Vitamin D levels occurs early after antiretroviral therapy initiation and depends on treatment regimen in resource-limited settings

Post Date: 
2014-04-21
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: Vitamin D has wide-ranging effects on the immune system, and studies suggest that low serum vitamin D levels are associated with worse clinical outcomes in HIV. Recent studies have identified an interaction between antiretrovirals used to treat HIV and reduced serum vitamin D levels,...

The evolving role of advocacy in tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2014-04-02
Publication: 
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Tuberculosis advocacy has changed the disease from a silent epidemic to one with many voices that seek increased political will and investment in research.1 Tuberculosis advocacy has gained strength as a mechanism to improve research, increase access to new methods to fight tuberculosis, and...

Pregnancy differentially impacts performance of latent tuberculosis diagnostics in a high-burden setting

Post Date: 
2014-03-21
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: Targeted screening for latent TB infection (LTBI) in vulnerable populations is a recommended TB control strategy. Pregnant women are at high risk for developing TB and likely to access healthcare, making pregnancy an important screening opportunity in developing countries. The...

Biomarkers for sepsis: a review with special attention to India

Post Date: 
2014-03-19
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Country: 
Sepsis is a serious infection and still a common cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings such as India. Even when microbiologic diagnostics are available, bacteremia is only identified in a proportion of patients who present with sepsis and bloodstream infections. Biomarkers...

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
Publication: 
Vaccine
Country: 
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

Field evaluation of PIMA point-of-care CD4 testing in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2014-03-10
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Objective: To assess the accuracy of PIMA Point-of-Care (POC) CD4 testing in rural Rakai, Uganda. Methods: 903 HIV positive persons attending field clinics provided a venous blood sample assessed on site using PIMA analyzers per manufacturer's specifications. The venous samples were then run on...

The role of viral introductions in sustaining community-based HIV epidemics in rural Uganda: evidence from spatial clustering, phylogenics, and egocentric transmission models

Post Date: 
2014-03-04
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: It is often assumed that local sexual networks play a dominant role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which continued HIV transmission in rural communities—home to two-thirds of the African population—is driven by intra-community...

Modifiable risk factors associated with tuberculosis disease in children in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-02-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Country: 
Setting: India accounts for the largest burden of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide, with 26% of the world's cases. Objective: To assess the association between novel modifiable risk factors and TB in Indian children. Design: Cases were children aged ≤ 5 years with confirmed/probable TB based on World...

Mortality and long-term virologic outcomes in children and infants treated with lopinavir/ritonavir

Post Date: 
2013-12-15
Publication: 
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Country: 
Background: There is scant data on young children receiving protease inhibitor-based therapy in real-life resource-limited settings and on the optimal timing of therapy among children who survive infancy. Our aim was to evaluate outcomes at the Hospital del Niño, Panama, where children have been...

Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Uganda

Post Date: 
2013-11-28
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Objective : Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lateral-flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people...

Pediatric tuberculosis in young children in India: a prospective study

Post Date: 
2013-11-11
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Country: 
Background: India has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens globally. However, few studies have focused on TB in young children, a vulnerable population, where lack of early diagnosis results in poor outcomes. Methods: Young children (≤ 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively enrolled...

The Exposure Assessment in current time (EXACT) study: implementation, feasibility and acceptability of real-time data collection in a community cohort of illicit drug users

Post Date: 
2013-11-06
Publication: 
AIDS Research and Treatment
Country: 
Objective: We describe the study design and evaluate the implementation, feasibility, and acceptability of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of illicit drug users. Design. Four sequential field trials targeting observation of 30 individuals followed for a four week period. Participants...

Leveraging information technology to address the health workforce gap

Post Date: 
2013-11-01
Publication: 
Bulletin of the World Health Organization
According to some estimates, the world needs more than 4 million additional physicians, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory technicians, midwives, community health workers (CHWs) and other front-line health workers. However, there is also a shortage of faculty that can provide high-quality training and...

HIV/AIDS education in traditional Indian systems of medicine: faculty perspectives

Post Date: 
2013-10-24
Publication: 
Journal of Traditional Medicine and and Clinical Naturopathy
Country: 
In India, HIV-infected individuals face numerous challenges in their search for treatments. Currently, western allopathic medicine (hereinafter ‘biomedicine’) offers antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS and associated co-morbidities that have prolonged survival and improved quality of life...

Cost-effectiveness of Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosing pulmonary Tuberculosis in the United States

Post Date: 
2013-10-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Country: 
Setting : Conventional approaches to tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and resistance testing are slow. The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is an emerging molecular diagnostic assay for rapid TB diagnosis, offering results within 2 hours. However, the cost-effectiveness of implementing Xpert in settings with low TB...

Intensified case-finding of latent tuberculosis infection among the Baltimore City Hispanic population

Post Date: 
2013-08-15
Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Country: 
Foreign-born immigrants are at high risk for latent TB infection (LTBI). In conjunction with the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD), student volunteers conducted intensified LTBI case-finding (ICF) using tuberculin skin testing (TST) in the Hispanic community from 2006-2010. We sought to...

India’s new policy to protect research participants

Post Date: 
2013-07-31
Publication: 
The BMJ
Country: 
Editorial Introduction: India, the country with the largest disease burden in the world,1 is now a major international hub for clinical research. However, a recent policy that was meant to mitigate important ethical concerns may have profound and unintended consequences for public health and may...

Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa

Post Date: 
2013-07-29
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background : The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference laboratories...

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