Publications

Low Vitamin-D levels combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J host variants is strongly associated with tuberculosis and death in HIV-infected and -exposed infants

Post Date: 
2016-02-12
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PLOS One
Background: This study examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and specific host genetic variants that affect vitamin D levels or its effects on immune function, with the risk of TB or mortality in children. Methods: A case-cohort sample of 466 South African infants enrolled in P1041 trial...

Prevalence and risk factors of micronutrient deficiencies pre- and post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) among a diverse multicountry cohort of HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2016-02-10
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Publication: 
Clinical Nutrition
Background & Aims: HIV-infected adults have increased risk of several individual micronutrient deficiencies. However, the prevalence and risk factors of concurrent and multiple micronutrient deficiencies and whether micronutrient concentrations change after antiretroviral therapy (ART)...

TLR2-modulating lipoproteins of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex enhance the HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells

Post Date: 
2016-01-25
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PLoS One
Abstract Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis accelerates progression from HIV to AIDS. Our previous studies showed that M. tuberculosis complex, unlike M. smegmatis, enhances TLR2-dependent susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV. The M. tuberculosis complex produces multiple TLR2-...

The epidemiologic and economic impact of improving HIV testing, linkage, and retention in care in the United States

Post Date: 
2016-01-15
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background : Recent guidelines advocate early antiretroviral therapy (ART) to decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) morbidity and prevent transmission, but suboptimal engagement in care may compromise impact. We sought to determine the economic and epidemiologic impact of incomplete...

Senior center-based hepatitis C screening in Baltimore

Post Date: 
2016-01-06
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Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Abstract Despite significant advancements in hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments, the majority of individuals infected with HCV remain undiagnosed. We report on senior citizen center-based HCV testing in Baltimore, which revealed a 9.4% prevalence of infection. Our data suggest that community-based...

Toward earlier inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in TB drug trials: consensus statements from an International Expert Panel

Post Date: 
2016-01-04
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15–44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials...

Cost effectiveness of isoniazid preventive therapy for HIV-infected pregnant women in India

Post Date: 
2016-01-01
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Background: India has a high burden of active tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Pregnancy increases the risks of developing TB in HIV-infected women. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces progression to TB, but may increase costs and hepatotoxicity. The cost-...

Awareness and support for graphic health warnings on smokeless tobacco packages in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh

Post Date: 
2015-12-04
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Tobacco Control
Awareness and support for graphic health warnings on smokeless tobacco packages in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh

Determinants of default from tuberculosis treatment among patients with drug-susceptible tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: a mixed methods study

Post Date: 
2015-11-12
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PLOS One
Purpose: Non-adherence to tuberculosis therapy can lead to drug resistance, prolonged infectiousness, and death; therefore, understanding what causes treatment default is important. Pakistan has one of the highest burdens of tuberculosis in the world, yet there have been no qualitative...

Pediatric tuberculous meningitis: model-based approach to determining optimal doses of anti-tuberculosis drugs for children

Post Date: 
2015-10-22
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Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Standard treatment includes isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Current rifampin dosing achieves low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, and CSF penetration of ethambutol is poor. In adult trials,...

Recurrent Aeromonas bacteremia due to contaminated well water

Post Date: 
2015-10-20
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Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Although they are ubiquitous to aquatic environments, Aeromonas species have traditionally been considered nonvirulent; however, in the past 30 years, they have emerged as important human pathogens that can cause a wide spectrum of disease. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent Aeromonas...

RePORT International: advancing tuberculosis biomarker research through global collaboration

Post Date: 
2015-10-15
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Progress in tuberculosis clinical research is hampered by a lack of reliable biomarkers that predict progression from latent to active tuberculosis, and subsequent cure, relapse, or failure. Regional Prospective Observational Research for Tuberculosis (RePORT) International represents a consortium...

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding breastfeeding in postpartum mothers at a tertiary care institute during a public health awareness campaign

Post Date: 
2015-10-09
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International Journal of Health Sciences
Background: Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant...

Soluble CD14: An independent biomarker for risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission in setting of pre- and post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis

Post Date: 
2015-10-06
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The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elevated soluble CD14 (sCD14) concentrations, a marker of monocyte activation, predicts adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. To examine the association of sCD14 concentrations with the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, we nested a case-control...

Economic and epidemiological impact of early antiretroviral therapy initiation in India

Post Date: 
2015-10-01
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Journal of the International AIDS Society
Introduction: Recent WHO guidance advocates for early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at higher CD4 counts to improve survival and reduce HIV transmission. We sought to quantify how the cost-effectiveness and epidemiological impact of early ART strategies in India are affected by attrition...

Pre-cART elevation of CRP and CD4+ T-cell immune activation associated with HIV clinical progression in a multinational case-cohort study

Post Date: 
2015-10-01
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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a subset of HIV-infected patients who initiate cART develop early clinical progression to AIDS; therefore, some cART initiators are not fully benefitted by cART. Immune activation pre-cART may predict clinical progression...

Maternal Smokeless Tobacco Use in Pregnancy and Adverse Health Outcomes in Newborn babies

Post Date: 
2015-09-17
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The Asian Man
BACKGROUND: Perinatal morbidity and mortality are important indicators of maternal health and the future health of the child. Smokeless tobacco (ST) use during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW), preterm births, stillbirths, and small for gestation age (SGA). This study...

Mother and child both matter: reconceptualizing the prevention of mother-to-child transmission care continuum

Post Date: 
2015-09-08
Publication: 
Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Purpose of review: To propose a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care continuum that defines the programmatic steps necessary to provide HIV care to the HIV-infected pregnant woman and her infant during the risk period for HIV transmission. Recent findings: There are several...

Contraceptive use and factors associated with postpartum surgical sterilization among HIV-infected women in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2015-08-21
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Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
The authors desire to better understand contraceptive practices and factors associated with surgical tubal ligation (STL) among HIV-infected women. Secondary data were obtained from HIV-infected women enrolled in a National Institutes of Health–funded clinical trial assessing the efficacy of...

Effectiveness of peer support on care engagement and preventive care intervention utilization among pre-antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected adults in Rakai, Uganda: a randomized trial

Post Date: 
2015-08-14
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AIDS and Behavior
442 pre-ART, HIV-infected adults were randomized to peer support consisting of structured home visits to promote clinic attendance and preventive care intervention use or standard of care. At baseline, 62 % reported previously visiting an HIV clinic, 45 % reported taking cotrimoxazole prophylaxis,...

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