Publications by Year (2016)

The ripple effect: why promoting female leadership in global health matters

Post Date: 
2016-12-21
Publication: 
Public Health Action
Leadership positions in global health are greatly skewed toward men; the imbalance is more pronounced in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The under-representation of women in leadership is a threat to gender equality, and also impacts the improvement of women's health outcomes globally. In...

Patterns of use and perceptions of harm of smokeless tobacco in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh

Post Date: 
2016-12-04
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Country: 
Background: Globally, smokeless tobacco use is disproportionately concentrated in low-income and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. Objectives: The current study examined comparative patterns of use and perceptions of harm for different smokeless tobacco products among adults and...

Carbapenems against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a review of the evidence

Post Date: 
2016-11-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Carbapenems, a more recent β-lactam class, represent a unique anti-tuberculosis option, as emerging evidence demonstrates that they target the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall and β-lactamase. This provides a potentially new agent against M. tuberculosis, in particular for multidrug-resistant (...

Tuberculosis burden in India's private sector

Post Date: 
2016-11-15
Publication: 
The Lancet Infectious Disease
Country: 
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Primary care providers knowledge, attitude and practices related to hepatitis C screening and treatment in the oral direct acting antiviral agents era

Post Date: 
2016-10-28
Publication: 
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Education
Country: 
Background: There are over 3 million Americans infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Despite recent advances in HCV treatment, a major barrier to care remains a limited number of treaters. HCV therapy provision by primary care providers (PCPs) could expand access by increasing the pool of HCV...

Mandatory tuberculosis case notification in high tuberculosis-incidence countries: policy and practice

Post Date: 
2016-10-20
Publication: 
European Respiratory Journal
Mandatory tuberculosis (TB) notification is an important policy under the End TB Strategy, but little is known about its enforcement especially in high TB incidence countries. We undertook a literature search for selected high-incidence countries, followed by a questionnaire-based survey among key...

Sex-related differences in inflammatory and immune activation markers before and after combined antiretroviral therapy initiation

Post Date: 
2016-10-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Women progress to death at the same rate as men despite lower plasma HIV RNA (viral load). We investigated sex-specific differences in immune activation and inflammation as a potential explanation. Methods: Inflammatory and immune activation markers [interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor...

Efficacy of six-week extended-dose nevirapine varies by infant birth weight with greatest relative efficacy in low birth weight infants

Post Date: 
2016-09-30
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Low birth weight (LBW), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as birth weight less than 2500 g, is a significant public health issue in resource-limited settings, particularly in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia where the estimated annual incidence is 14% and 28–31%, respectively, and the...

HIV-related stigma among Spanish speaking Latinos in an emerging immigrant receiving city

Post Date: 
2016-09-27
Publication: 
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Country: 
HIV-related stigma has been associated with a reluctance to test for HIV among Latinos . This study assessed community HIV-related stigma within an emerging Latino immigrant receiving city . We conducted a brief survey among a convenience sample of 312 Spanish - speaking Latinos in Baltimore,...

Continued importance of sexually transmitted disease clinics in the era of the Affordable Care Act

Post Date: 
2016-09-15
Publication: 
American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Country: 
Introduction: Following the 2014 expansions of Medicaid and private health insurance through the Affordable Care Act, municipal sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics-which have historically served predominantly uninsured patients-have been threatened with budget cuts nationwide. This study was...

Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in HIV-positive adults

Post Date: 
2016-08-16
Publication: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Country: 
Background: Rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global health priority. HIV-associated TB may have different clinical presentations and is challenging to diagnose. Conventional sputum tests have reduced sensitivity in HIV-positive...

Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic in agrarian, trading, and fishing communities in Rakai, Uganda: an observational epidemiological study

Post Date: 
2016-08-15
Publication: 
The Lancet HIV
Country: 
Background : Understanding the extent to which HIV burden differs across communities and the drivers of local disparities is crucial for an effective and targeted HIV response. We assessed community-level variations in HIV prevalence, risk factors, and treatment and prevention service uptake in...

Community-based interventions to improve and sustain antiretroviral therapy adherence, retention in HIV care and clinical outcomes in low- and middle-income countries for achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets

Post Date: 
2016-07-30
Publication: 
Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Country: 
Little is known about the effect of community versus health facility-based interventions to improve and sustain antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, virologic suppression, and retention in care among HIV-infected individuals in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We systematically searched...

Continued elevation of interleukin-18 and interferon-γ after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and clinical failure in a diverse multicountry human immunodeficiency virus cohort

Post Date: 
2016-07-27
Publication: 
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: We assessed immune activation after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to understand clinical failure in diverse settings. Methods: We performed a case-control study in ACTG Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (PEARLS). Cases were defined as...

Editorial Commentary: Recruiting the next generation of infectious diseases physicians: how do we reignite the passion?

Post Date: 
2016-07-15
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Introduction: Infectious diseases (ID) is the most exciting medical subspecialty. We may be biased, but we are not wrong. It is disheartening that applications to ID fellowships continue to decrease; in 2016, 61% of fellowship programs did not fill through the National Resident Matching Program, up...

Association of medical male circumcision and antiretroviral therapy scale-up with community HIV incidence in Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2016-07-12
Publication: 
JAMA
Country: 
IMPORTANCE: Medical male circumcision (MMC) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are proven HIV prevention interventions, but there are limited data on the population-level effect of scale-up of these interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluation is important for planning and resource allocation...

Epidemiological impact of achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV care in India: a modelling study

Post Date: 
2016-07-07
Publication: 
BMJ Open
Country: 
Objective: Recent UNAIDS ‘90-90-90’ targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030, 90% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide should know their diagnosis, 90% of diagnosed PLWH should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 90% of PLWH on ART should be virally suppressed by 2020. We...

Inflammation and change in body weight with antiretroviral therapy initiation in a multinational cohort of HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2016-07-01
Publication: 
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: Both wasting and obesity are associated with inflammation, but the extent to which body weight changes influence inflammation during human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods: Among a random virologically suppressed participants of the Prospective Evaluation of...

Defining clinical excellence in adult infectious disease practice

Post Date: 
2016-06-16
Publication: 
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Clinical excellence should be recognized, particularly in the current climate that appropriately prioritizes relationship-centered care. In order to develop a recognition model, a definition of clinical excellence must be created and agreed upon. A paradigm recently suggested by C. Christmas...

Quantitative IFN-y,IL-2 response and latent tuberculosis test discordance in HIV-infected pregnant women

Post Date: 
2016-06-15
Publication: 
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Country: 
Rationale: Pregnant women with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at high risk for development of TB, especially if infected with HIV. Objectives: To assess the performance of LTBI tests in pregnant and postpartum women infected with HIV, investigate the immunology behind discordance in...

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