Publications by Year (2016)

The ripple effect: why promoting female leadership in global health matters

Post Date: 
2016-12-21
Publication: 
Public Health Action
Leadership positions in global health are greatly skewed toward men; the imbalance is more pronounced in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The under-representation of women in leadership is a threat to gender equality, and also impacts the improvement of women's health outcomes...

Patterns of use and perceptions of harm of smokeless tobacco in Navi Mumbai, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh

Post Date: 
2016-12-04
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Publication: 
Indian Journal of Community Medicine
Background: Globally, smokeless tobacco use is disproportionately concentrated in low-income and middle-income countries like India and Bangladesh. Objectives: The current study examined comparative patterns of use and perceptions of harm for different smokeless tobacco products among adults and...

Tuberculosis burden in India's private sector

Post Date: 
2016-11-15
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Publication: 
The Lancet Infectious Disease
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Mandatory tuberculosis case notification in high tuberculosis-incidence countries: policy and practice

Post Date: 
2016-10-20
Publication: 
European Respiratory Journal
Mandatory tuberculosis (TB) notification is an important policy under the End TB Strategy, but little is known about its enforcement especially in high TB incidence countries. We undertook a literature search for selected high-incidence countries, followed by a questionnaire-based survey...

Sex-related differences in inflammatory and immune activation markers before and after combined antiretroviral therapy initiation

Post Date: 
2016-10-01
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Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Background: Women progress to death at the same rate as men despite lower plasma HIV RNA (viral load). We investigated sex-specific differences in immune activation and inflammation as a potential explanation. Methods: Inflammatory and immune activation markers [...

Efficacy of six-week extended-dose nevirapine varies by infant birth weight with greatest relative efficacy in low birth weight infants

Post Date: 
2016-09-30
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Publication: 
PLOS One
Low birth weight (LBW), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as birth weight less than 2500 g, is a significant public health issue in resource-limited settings, particularly in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia where the estimated annual incidence is 14% and 28–31%, respectively,...

Continued elevation of interleukin-18 and interferon-γ after initiation of antiretroviral therapy and clinical failure in a diverse multicountry human immunodeficiency virus cohort

Post Date: 
2016-07-27
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Publication: 
Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Background: We assessed immune activation after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to understand clinical failure in diverse settings. Methods: We performed a case-control study in ACTG Prospective Evaluation of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings (...

Epidemiological impact of achieving UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for HIV care in India: a modelling study

Post Date: 
2016-07-07
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Publication: 
BMJ Open
Objective: Recent UNAIDS ‘90-90-90’ targets propose that to end the HIV epidemic by 2030, 90% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide should know their diagnosis, 90% of diagnosed PLWH should be on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 90% of PLWH on ART should be virally suppressed by 2020...

Inflammation and change in body weight with antiretroviral therapy initiation in a multinational cohort of HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2016-07-01
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Publication: 
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Both wasting and obesity are associated with inflammation, but the extent to which body weight changes influence inflammation during human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods: Among a random virologically suppressed participants of the...

Quantitative IFN-y,IL-2 response and latent tuberculosis test discordance in HIV-infected pregnant women

Post Date: 
2016-06-15
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Publication: 
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Rationale: Pregnant women with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at high risk for development of TB, especially if infected with HIV. Objectives: To assess the performance of LTBI tests in pregnant and postpartum women infected with HIV, investigate the...

Next-generation sequencing in neuropathologic diagnosis of infections of the nervous system

Post Date: 
2016-06-13
Publication: 
Neurology, Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) microbiome approaches in the diagnosis of infectious disorders in brain or spinal cord biopsies in patients with suspected CNS infections. METHODS: In a...

Isoniazid hair concentrations in children with tuberculosis: a proof of concept study

Post Date: 
2016-06-01
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Assessing treatment adherence and quantifying exposure to anti-tuberculosis drugs among children is challenging. We undertook a 'proof of concept' study to assess the drug concentrations of isoniazid (INH) in hair as a therapeutic drug monitoring tool. Children aged <12 years initiated on...

The availability of emergency obstetric care in the context of the JSY cash transfer programme in Madhya Pradesh, India

Post Date: 
2016-05-18
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Publication: 
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Abstract Background: Since 2005, India has implemented a national cash transfer programme, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides women a cash transfer upon giving birth in an existing public facility. This has resulted in a steep rise in facility births across the...

Applying ethical principles to international community-based research; a case study from the Consortium to Respond Effectively to the AIDS/TB Epidemic

Post Date: 
2016-05-15
This paper describes how one set of HIV-TB prevention research studies put procedures in place to be responsive to these foundational ethical principles when interacting with communities in large population-based, global public health research.

Management and control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB): addressing policy needs for India

Post Date: 
2016-05-06
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Publication: 
Journal of Public Health Policy
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) challenges TB control efforts because of delays in diagnosis plus its long-term treatment which has toxic effects. Of TB high-incidence countries, India carries the highest burden of MDR-TB cases. We describe policy issues in India concerning MDR-TB...

Inflammation and change in body weight with antiretroviral therapy initiation in a multinational cohort of HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2016-04-01
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Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Background: Both wasting and obesity are associated with inflammation, but the extent to which body weight changes influence inflammation during human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods: Among a random virologically suppressed participants of the...

Persistently elevated C-reactive protein level in the first year of antiretroviral therapy, despite virologic suppression, is associated with HIV disease progression in resource-constrained settings

Post Date: 
2016-04-01
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Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
A case-cohort analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was performed within a multicountry randomized trial (PEARLS) to assess the prevalence of persistently elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, based on serial...

Tuberculosis risk among medical trainees, Pune, India

Post Date: 
2016-03-22
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Publication: 
Emerging Infectious Diseases
During 2012–2013, at a public hospital in Pune, India, 26 (3.9%) cases of tuberculosis were reported among 662 medical trainees, representing an estimated incidence of 3,279 cases/100,000 person-years. Three of these infections were isoniazid-resistant, 1 was multidrug-resistant, and 1 occurred in...

Empirical tuberculosis therapy versus isoniazid in adult outpatients with advanced HIV initiating antiretroviral therapy (REMEMBER): a multicountry open-label randomised controlled trial

Post Date: 
2016-03-19
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Publication: 
The Lancet
Background: Mortality within the first 6 months after initiating antiretroviral therapy is common in resource-limited settings and is often due to tuberculosis in patients with advanced HIV disease. Isoniazid preventive therapy is recommended in HIV-positive adults, but subclinical...

Cohort for Tuberculosis Research by the Indo-US Medical Partnership (C-TRIUMPH): protocol for a multicentric prospective observational study

Post Date: 
2016-02-25
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Publication: 
BMJ Open
Introduction: Tuberculosis disease (TB) remains an important global health threat. An evidence-based response, tailored to local disease epidemiology in high-burden countries, is key to controlling the global TB epidemic. Reliable surrogate biomarkers that predict key active disease and latent TB...

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