Publications by Year (2017)

Isoniazid concentrations in hair and plasma area-under-the-curve exposure among children with tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2017-12-07
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PLOS One
PLOS One: Mave and colleagues compared TB drug exposure in plasma and hair samples among a small cohort of children.

The use of clinical decision support in reducing diagnosis of and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria

Post Date: 
2017-12-06
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Publication: 
Journal of Hospital Medicine
Clinical decision support embedded within the electronic health record is a potential antibiotic stewardship strategy for hospitalized patients.

Antibiotic utilization and the role of suspected and diagnosed mosquito borne illness among adults and children with acute febrile illness in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2017-12-04
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Mosquito-borne disease identification is associated with reduced empiric antibiotic use and faster antibiotic discontinuation.

Suboptimal anti-tuberculosis drug concentrations and outcomes in small and HIV coinfected children in India: recommendations for dose modifications

Post Date: 
2017-12-01
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Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily anti-tuberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing...

Prevalence of dysglycemia and clinical presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis in Western India

Post Date: 
2017-12-01
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and risk factors of pre-diabetes mellitus (DM) and DM, and its associations with the clinical presentation of tuberculosis (TB). Design: Screening for DM was conducted among adults (age  18 years) with confirmed TB between December 2013 and January 2017. We...

HIV prevention efforts and incidence in HIV in Uganda

Post Date: 
2017-11-30
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Publication: 
New England Journal of Medicine
In a large study in Uganda, Dr. Larry Chang and colleagues found that combination HIV prevention has population level implications, reducing new infections by 42%.

Impact of a community health worker HIV treatment and prevention intervention in an HIV hotspot fishing community in Rakai, Uganda (mLAKE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Post Date: 
2017-10-23
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Trials
Abstract Background: Effective yet practical strategies are needed to increase engagement in HIV treatment and prevention services, particularly in high-HIV-prevalence hotspots. We designed a community-based intervention called "Health Scouts" to promote uptake and adherence to HIV services in a...

Risk factors for early mortality on antiretroviral therapy in advanced HIV-infected adults

Post Date: 
2017-10-23
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AIDS
Background: Many HIV-infected individuals present with advanced HIV disease. These patients are at high risk of death after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, but risk factors for death in these patients are unclear. Methods: We used data from a multisite randomized trial comparing empiric vs...

Of testing and treatment: Implications of implementing new regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2017-10-01
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
A novel, shorter-course regimen for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis was recently recommended by the World Health Organization. However, the most appropriate use of drug susceptibility testing (DST) to support this regimen is less clear. Implementing countries must therefore often...

Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Post Date: 
2017-09-16
Publication: 
The Lancet
Abstract Background: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a...

Global, regional, and national under-5 mortality, adult mortality, age-specific mortality, and life expectancy, 1970-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Post Date: 
2017-09-16
Publication: 
The Lancet
Abstract Background: Detailed assessments of mortality patterns, particularly age-specific mortality, represent a crucial input that enables health systems to target interventions to specific populations. Understanding how all-cause mortality has changed with respect to development status can...

Measuring progress and projecting attainment on the basis of past trends of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: an analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Post Date: 
2017-09-12
Publication: 
The Lancet
Abstract Background: The UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are grounded in the global ambition of "leaving no one behind". Understanding today's gains and gaps for the health-related SDGs is essential for decision makers as they aim to improve the health of populations. As part of the...

Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

Post Date: 
2017-07-15
Publication: 
The Lancet
Abstract Background: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only...

Cardiovascular risk in an HIV-infected population in India

Post Date: 
2017-07-03
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Heart Asia
Findings: HIV+ Indian patients who had cardiovascular disease at a younger age appear to be at imminent risk for morbidity.

A qualitative study exploring factors influencing clinical decision-making for influenza-like illness in Solapur city, Maharashtra, India

Post Date: 
2017-07-03
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Anthropology and Medicine
Abstract The co-existence of different types of medical systems (medical pluralism) is a typical feature of India's healthcare system. For conditions such as influenza-like illness (ILI), where non-specific disease signs/symptoms exist, clinical reasoning in the context of medical pluralism becomes...

Constituent variation in smokeless tobacco purchased in Mumbai, India

Post Date: 
2017-07-01
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Tobacco Regulatory Science
Objectives: Worldwide, smokeless tobacco products vary greatly in their formulations and chemical composition. Understanding of toxic and carcinogenic constituent variations in such products can provide valuable insights for the development of effective tobacco control policies. In this study, we...

Household food insecurity is associated with low interferon-gamma levels in pregnant Indian women

Post Date: 
2017-07-01
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Objective: To determine the association between household food insecurity and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels in pregnancy. Design: Pregnant women in India were administered the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) questionnaire and underwent an IFN-γ release assay. Logistic regression...

Vitamin A and D deficiencies associated with incident tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in multinational case-cohort study

Post Date: 
2017-07-01
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Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Introduction: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized...

Maternal syphilis: An independent risk factor for mother to infant human immunodeficiency virus transmission

Post Date: 
2017-06-15
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Publication: 
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Abstract Syphilis is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus acquisition and sexual transmission; we examined impact on human immunodeficiency virus mother-to-child transmission among mother-infant pairs enrolled in the India Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine study. Maternal syphilis...

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