Publications by Year (2019)

Addressing the global burden of hepatitis B virus while developing long-acting injectables for the prevention and treatment of HIV

Post Date: 
2019-12-20
Publication: 
Lancet HIV
Lancet HIV: Dr. Bob Bollinger and colleagues discuss the urgent need and opportunity to include activity against Hepatitis B in formulations of long-acting drugs for HIV prevention and treatment

Transcriptomic profiles of confirmed pediatric tuberculosis patients and household contacts identifies active tuberculosis, infection, and treatment response among Indian children

Post Date: 
2019-12-04
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Publication: 
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Journal of Infectious Diseases: Gene expression profiles among Indian children with confirmed TB were distinct from those of adults, highlighting the importance of including distinct populations in differential gene expression models

Evaluating the Concordance of Clinician Antiretroviral Prescribing Practices and HIV-ASSIST, an Online Clinical Decision Support Tool

Post Date: 
2019-12-02
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Publication: 
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Recent studies have shown that more than half of HIV care is provided by primary care practitioners.However, clinicians with experience and expertise in HIV medicine are declining.

A parsimonious host inflammatory biomarker signature predicts incident TB and mortality in advanced HIV

Post Date: 
2019-11-25
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
BACKGROUND: People with advanced HIV (CD4<50) remain at high risk of TB or death despite the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We aimed to identify immunological profiles that were most predictive of incident TB disease and death. METHODS: The REMEMBER randomized clinical trial enrolled 850...

Lipid mediators of inflammation and resolution in individuals with tuberculosis and tuberculosis-diabetes

Post Date: 
2019-11-11
Publication: 
Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators
Individuals with concurrent tuberculosis (TB) and Type 2 diabetes (DM) have a higher risk of adverse outcomes. To better understand potential immunological differences, we utilized a comprehensive panel to characterize pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving (i.e., mediators involved in the resolution...

MAL adaptor (TIRAP) S180L polymorphism and severity of disease among tuberculosis patients

Post Date: 
2019-10-31
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Publication: 
Infection, Genetics, and Evolution
Infection, Genetics, and Evolution : We investigated the association of TIRAP variants with severity of TB disease and IP-10 production in humans, which may be useful in predicting poor clinical outcome

Incidence of tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults on first- and second-line antiretroviral therapy in India

Post Date: 
2019-10-29
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Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
In this study among people living with HIV, Akshay Gupte and colleagues found that the risk of acquiring tuberculosis was higher in those receiving first-line antiretrovial therapy versus those receiving second-line medications.

Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in people living with HIV

Post Date: 
2019-10-21
Publication: 
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Why is improving the diagnosis of tuberculosis important? Tuberculosis causes more deaths in people living with HIV than any other disease. The lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM, Alere Determine™ TB LAM Ag assay) is a World Health Organization-recommended rapid test to assist in detection of active tuberculosis in HIV-positive people with severe HIV disease. Rapid and early tuberculosis diagnosis may allow for prompt treatment and alleviate severe illness and death. An incorrect tuberculosis diagnosis may result in anxiety and unnecessary treatment.

Impact of combination HIV interventions on HIV incidence in hyperendemic fishing communities in Uganda: a prospective cohort study

Post Date: 
2019-10-06
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Publication: 
The Lancet HIV
BACKGROUND: Targeting combination HIV interventions to locations and populations with high HIV burden is a global priority, but the impact of these strategies on HIV incidence is unclear. We assessed the impact of combination HIV interventions on HIV incidence in four HIV-hyperendemic communities...

Isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women

Post Date: 
2019-10-03
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Publication: 
New England Journal of Medicine
New England Journal of Medicine: Dr. Amita Gupta and colleagues found that the current standard of care given to HIV+ pregnant women to prevent TB should wait until 12 weeks after delivery. The study underscores the need to include pregnant women in clinical trials.

Development and validation of HIV-ASSIST, an online, educational, clinical decision support tool to guide patient-centered ARV regimen selection

Post Date: 
2019-10-01
Publication: 
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Maunank Shah and colleagues invented HIV-ASSIST, an online decision-making tool that helps clinicians determine what antiretroviral therapies will best meet the needs of individual HIV patients. This paper in JAIDS discusses what they found in testing the tool's validity.

Challenges in conducting trials for pediatric tuberculosis meningitis: lessons learned in the field

Post Date: 
2019-10-01
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Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: Researchers describe the challenges associated with conducting the first randomized clinical trial of antimicrobial agents in pediatric tuberculosis meningitis.

Delays and barriers to early treatment initiation for childhood tuberculosis in India

Post Date: 
2019-10-01
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
BACKGROUND: India accounts for 27% of global childhood tuberculosis (TB) burden. Understanding barriers to early diagnosis and treatment in children may improve care and outcomes. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among 89 children initiated on anti-TB treatment from a public hospital...

Delamanid central nervous system pharmacokinetics in tuberculous meningitis in rabbits and humans

Post Date: 
2019-09-23
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Publication: 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Central nervous system tuberculosis (TB) is devastating and affects vulnerable populations. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculous meningitis (TBM) specifically are nearly uniformly fatal, with little information being available to guide the treatment of these...

Adaptive viral load monitoring frequency to facilitate differentiated care: a modeling study from Rakai, Uganda

Post Date: 
2019-09-18
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Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
INTRODUCTION: After scaleup of antiretroviral therapy (ART), routine annual viral load monitoring has been adopted by most countries, but reduced frequency of viral load monitoring may offer cost savings in resource limited settings. We investigated if viral load monitoring frequency could be...

Cell Phones, Sexual Behaviors and HIV Prevalence in Rakai, Uganda: A Cross Sectional Analysis of Longitudinal Data

Post Date: 
2019-09-13
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Publication: 
AIDS and Behavior
Abstract Cell phones have increased communication and connection across the globe and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa-with potential consequences for the HIV epidemic. We examined the association among ownership of cell phones, sexual behaviors (number of sexual partners, alcohol use before sex...

Re: A Shorter Regimen for Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2019-09-12
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Publication: 
New England Journal of Medicine
Dr. Jeff Tornheim and colleagues respond to an NEJM article about shorter course TB treatment.

Evaluation of miLINC to shorten time to treatment for rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2019-09-01
Publication: 
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
A suite of mobile health applications shows promise for linking more drug-resisitant TB patients to care and in less time.

Use of smartphone-based video Directly Observed Therapy (vDOT) in tuberculosis care: Single-arm, prospective feasibility study

Post Date: 
2019-08-30
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Publication: 
Journal of Medical Internet Research
Video-based monitoring is increasingly used as an efficient and low cost alternative to in-person observation and monitoring of TB patients. It showed promise in the high TB setting of India, too.

Inclusion of key populations in clinical trials of new antituberculosis treatments: Current barriers and recommendations for pregnant and lactating women, children, and HIV-infected persons

Post Date: 
2019-08-15
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Publication: 
PLOS Medicine
PLOS Medicine: Dr. Amita Gupta and colleagues discuss the scientific and ethical basis for including pregnant and lactation women, children, and HIV+ patients in tuberculosis therapeutic clinical trials.

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