Publications - Pediatrics

Inclusion of key populations in clinical trials of new antituberculosis treatments: Current barriers and recommendations for pregnant and lactating women, children, and HIV-infected persons

Post Date: 
2019-08-15
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
PLOS Medicine
PLOS Medicine: Dr. Amita Gupta and colleagues discuss the scientific and ethical basis for including pregnant and lactation women, children, and HIV+ patients in tuberculosis therapeutic clinical trials.

Long-acting or extended-release antiretroviral products for HIV treatment and prevention in infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and breastfeeding women: knowledge gaps and research priorities

Post Date: 
2019-07-15
Publication: 
Lancet HIV
Lancet HIV : This paper summarizes findings of the Long acting/Extended Release Antiretroviral Resource Program workshop, and offers recommendations for developing ARV products for HIV treatment and prevention in infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and breastfeeding women

Preventable losses: Infant mortality increases in Venezuela

Post Date: 
2019-01-24
Publication: 
Lancet Global Health
The health-care system collapse underway in Venezuela is a cause of utmost concern for its people and, increasingly, for the wider region. Declines in provision of basic services, such as childhood immunisation, malaria control, water, sanitation, and nutritional support, have led to increasing...

HIV testing uptake among the household contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis index cases in eight countries

Post Date: 
2019-01-07
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease : The Indo-JHU Clinical Research Parentership participated in this multinational study to determine if it's feasible to provide HIV testing for household contacts of MDR-TB cases.

Barriers to screening and isoniazid preventive therapy for child contacts of tuberculosis patients

Post Date: 
2018-10-01
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Universal, timely TB screening and IPT for exposed children are urgently needed to reduce pediatric TB in India

Loss to follow‐up and mortality among HIV‐infected adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2018-06-25
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
HIV Medicine
Over 6 years, one-third of HIV+ adolescents in this study discontinued medical treatment, indicating a critical need for retention counselling and closer clinical monitoring.

Shorter treatment for minimal tuberculosis (TB) in children (SHINE): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Post Date: 
2018-04-19
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Trials
Trials: Evidence for TB treatment in kids is largely based on adult studies. The SHINE study aims to fix this

Mobile phone incentives for childhood immunizations in rural India

Post Date: 
2018-03-19
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Pediatrics
In Pediatrics: Incentives and technology can improve immunization coverage in young children in resource-poor settings.

Suboptimal antituberculosis drug concentrations and outcomes in small and HIV‐coinfected children in India: Recommendations for dose modifications

Post Date: 
2017-12-16
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily antituberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing...

Isoniazid concentrations in hair and plasma area-under-the-curve exposure among children with tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2017-12-07
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
PLOS One
PLOS One: Mave and colleagues compared TB drug exposure in plasma and hair samples among a small cohort of children.

Suboptimal anti-tuberculosis drug concentrations and outcomes in small and HIV coinfected children in India: recommendations for dose modifications

Post Date: 
2017-12-01
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily anti-tuberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing...

Novel interferon-gamma assays for diagnosing tuberculosis in young children in India

Post Date: 
2017-04-01
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used as supportive evidence to diagnose active tuberculosis (TB). Novel IGRAs could improve diagnosis, but data are lacking in young children. Design: Children (age 5 years or...

Isoniazid hair concentrations in children with tuberculosis: a proof of concept study

Post Date: 
2016-06-01
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Assessing treatment adherence and quantifying exposure to anti-tuberculosis drugs among children is challenging. We undertook a 'proof of concept' study to assess the drug concentrations of isoniazid (INH) in hair as a therapeutic drug monitoring tool. Children aged <12 years initiated on...

Low Vitamin-D levels combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J host variants is strongly associated with tuberculosis and death in HIV-infected and -exposed infants

Post Date: 
2016-02-12
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: This study examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and specific host genetic variants that affect vitamin D levels or its effects on immune function, with the risk of TB or mortality in children. Methods: A case-cohort sample of 466 South African infants enrolled in P1041 trial...

Pediatric tuberculous meningitis: model-based approach to determining optimal doses of anti-tuberculosis drugs for children

Post Date: 
2015-10-22
   |      |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Standard treatment includes isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Current rifampin dosing achieves low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, and CSF penetration of ethambutol is poor. In adult trials,...

Source case investigation for children with TB disease in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-08-27
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Setting. Contact tracing is broadly encouraged for tuberculosis (TB) control. In many high-burden countries, however, little effort is made to identify contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients. This failure puts children, many of whom live in poor crowded communities, at special risk. Objectives. To...

Challenges to disclosure of HIV status to perinatally infected children: a study of caregiver perspectives in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-06-15
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Effective guidelines around disclosure of HIV status are lacking and limited data from India reveal low rates of HIV disclosure to perinatally infected children. This study, conducted in Pune, India, attempts to understand the experiences of caregivers of perinatally infected children around the...

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Vaccine
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

Mortality and long-term virologic outcomes in children and infants treated with lopinavir/ritonavir

Post Date: 
2013-12-15
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Background: There is scant data on young children receiving protease inhibitor-based therapy in real-life resource-limited settings and on the optimal timing of therapy among children who survive infancy. Our aim was to evaluate outcomes at the Hospital del Niño, Panama, where children have been...

Pediatric tuberculosis in young children in India: a prospective study

Post Date: 
2013-11-11
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Background: India has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens globally. However, few studies have focused on TB in young children, a vulnerable population, where lack of early diagnosis results in poor outcomes. Methods: Young children (≤ 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively enrolled...

Pages