Publications - Pediatrics

Loss to follow‐up and mortality among HIV‐infected adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2018-06-25
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
HIV Medicine
Over 6 years, one-third of HIV+ adolescents in this study discontinued medical treatment, indicating a critical need for retention counselling and closer clinical monitoring.

Shorter treatment for minimal tuberculosis (TB) in children (SHINE): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Post Date: 
2018-04-19
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Trials
Trials: Evidence for TB treatment in kids is largely based on adult studies. The SHINE study aims to fix this

Mobile phone incentives for childhood immunizations in rural India

Post Date: 
2018-03-19
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Pediatrics
In Pediatrics: Incentives and technology can improve immunization coverage in young children in resource-poor settings.

Suboptimal antituberculosis drug concentrations and outcomes in small and HIV‐coinfected children in India: Recommendations for dose modifications

Post Date: 
2017-12-16
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily antituberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing...

Isoniazid concentrations in hair and plasma area-under-the-curve exposure among children with tuberculosis

Post Date: 
2017-12-07
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
PLOS One
PLOS One: Mave and colleagues compared TB drug exposure in plasma and hair samples among a small cohort of children.

Suboptimal anti-tuberculosis drug concentrations and outcomes in small and HIV coinfected children in India: recommendations for dose modifications

Post Date: 
2017-12-01
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
This work aimed to evaluate the once-daily anti-tuberculosis treatment as recommended by the new Indian pediatric guidelines. Isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide concentration-time profiles and treatment outcome were obtained from 161 Indian children with drug-sensitive tuberculosis undergoing...

Novel interferon-gamma assays for diagnosing tuberculosis in young children in India

Post Date: 
2017-04-01
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Setting: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used as supportive evidence to diagnose active tuberculosis (TB). Novel IGRAs could improve diagnosis, but data are lacking in young children. Design: Children (age 5 years or younger) with suspected TB were...

Isoniazid hair concentrations in children with tuberculosis: a proof of concept study

Post Date: 
2016-06-01
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Assessing treatment adherence and quantifying exposure to anti-tuberculosis drugs among children is challenging. We undertook a 'proof of concept' study to assess the drug concentrations of isoniazid (INH) in hair as a therapeutic drug monitoring tool. Children aged <12 years initiated on...

Low Vitamin-D levels combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J host variants is strongly associated with tuberculosis and death in HIV-infected and -exposed infants

Post Date: 
2016-02-12
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
PLOS One
Background: This study examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and specific host genetic variants that affect vitamin D levels or its effects on immune function, with the risk of TB or mortality in children. Methods: A case-cohort sample of 466 South African infants enrolled in P1041 trial...

Pediatric tuberculous meningitis: model-based approach to determining optimal doses of anti-tuberculosis drugs for children

Post Date: 
2015-10-22
   |      |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pediatric tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Standard treatment includes isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Current rifampin dosing achieves low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, and CSF penetration of ethambutol is poor. In adult trials,...

Source case investigation for children with TB disease in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-08-27
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
Setting. Contact tracing is broadly encouraged for tuberculosis (TB) control. In many high-burden countries, however, little effort is made to identify contacts of newly diagnosed TB patients. This failure puts children, many of whom live in poor crowded communities, at special risk. Objectives. To...

Challenges to disclosure of HIV status to perinatally infected children: a study of caregiver perspectives in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2014-06-15
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
Effective guidelines around disclosure of HIV status are lacking and limited data from India reveal low rates of HIV disclosure to perinatally infected children. This study, conducted in Pune, India, attempts to understand the experiences of caregivers of perinatally infected children around the...

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Vaccine
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

Mortality and long-term virologic outcomes in children and infants treated with lopinavir/ritonavir

Post Date: 
2013-12-15
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Background: There is scant data on young children receiving protease inhibitor-based therapy in real-life resource-limited settings and on the optimal timing of therapy among children who survive infancy. Our aim was to evaluate outcomes at the Hospital del Niño, Panama, where children have been...

Pediatric tuberculosis in young children in India: a prospective study

Post Date: 
2013-11-11
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
BioMed Research International
Background: India has one of the highest tuberculosis (TB) burdens globally. However, few studies have focused on TB in young children, a vulnerable population, where lack of early diagnosis results in poor outcomes. Methods: Young children (≤ 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively enrolled...

Contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care—does it work in rural India?

Post Date: 
2012-12-31
   |   
Countries: 
Publication: 
BMC Health Services Research
Abstract Background: Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency...

Pooled individual data analysis of five randomized trials of infant nevirapine prophylaxis to prevent breast-milk HIV-1 transmission

Post Date: 
2012-10-19
   |      |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: In resource-limited settings, mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) face a difficult choice: breastfeed their infants but risk transmitting HIV-1 or not breastfeed their infants and risk the infants dying of other infectious diseases or malnutrition. Recent...

Vitamin D deficiency is common among HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers in Pune, India, but not associated with mother-to-child HIV transmission

Post Date: 
2012-10-01
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
HIV Clinical Trials
A recent report from Tanzania demonstrated an increased risk of being HIV infected or of dying at birth among children born to breastfeeding mothers with low baseline vitamin D levels. We conducted a nested case-control study among HIV-infected pregnant women in western India to confirm the...

Predictors of mortality in hospitalized children with pandemic H1N1 influenza 2009 in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2012-04-15
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Objective: To analyse the factors associated with increased mortality among Indian Children with H1N1. Methods: Data were abstracted from available hospital records of children less than 12 y of age, who were admitted to Sassoon General Hospital in Pune, India, with confirmed pandemic 2009 H1N1...

Impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection on pregnancy and birth outcomes in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2011-12-15
   |   
Countries: 
   |   
Clinical Sites: 
Publication: 
AIDS Care
Little is known about birth outcomes for HIV-infected women in India. We examine maternal and neonatal birth outcomes in HIV-infected women within the context of enhanced pre-natal care associated with a randomized clinical trial conducted in Pune, India. Birth outcomes of 212 HIV-infected pregnant...

Pages