Publications - Breastfeeding

Efficacy of six-week extended-dose nevirapine varies by infant birth weight with greatest relative efficacy in low birth weight infants

Post Date: 
2016-09-30
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Low birth weight (LBW), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as birth weight less than 2500 g, is a significant public health issue in resource-limited settings, particularly in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia where the estimated annual incidence is 14% and 28–31%, respectively, and the...

Low Vitamin-D levels combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J host variants is strongly associated with tuberculosis and death in HIV-infected and -exposed infants

Post Date: 
2016-02-12
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: This study examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and specific host genetic variants that affect vitamin D levels or its effects on immune function, with the risk of TB or mortality in children. Methods: A case-cohort sample of 466 South African infants enrolled in P1041 trial...

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding breastfeeding in postpartum mothers at a tertiary care institute during a public health awareness campaign

Post Date: 
2015-10-09
Publication: 
International Journal of Health Sciences
Country: 
Background: Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant...

Soluble CD14: An independent biomarker for risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission in setting of pre- and post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis

Post Date: 
2015-10-06
Publication: 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elevated soluble CD14 (sCD14) concentrations, a marker of monocyte activation, predicts adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. To examine the association of sCD14 concentrations with the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, we nested a case-control...

Vitamin D deficiency and risk of postpartum tuberculosis among HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers in India

Post Date: 
2015-03-15
Publication: 
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Country: 
Some studies have associated low vitamin D levels with the risk of tuberculosis (TB), but its association in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected mothers in a TB-endemic region has not been well studied. We conducted a nested 1:2 case-control study among HIV-infected mothers in western India...

Growth patterns among HIV-exposed infants receiving nevirapine prophylaxis in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2012-10-31
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: India has among the highest rates of infant malnutrition. Few studies investigating the growth patterns of HIV-exposed infants in India or the impact of timing of HIV infection on growth in settings such as India exist. Methods: We used data from the Six Week Extended Nevirapine (SWEN)...

Pooled individual data analysis of five randomized trials of infant nevirapine prophylaxis to prevent breast-milk HIV-1 transmission

Post Date: 
2012-10-19
Publication: 
Clinical Infectious Diseases
Background: In resource-limited settings, mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) face a difficult choice: breastfeed their infants but risk transmitting HIV-1 or not breastfeed their infants and risk the infants dying of other infectious diseases or malnutrition. Recent...

Vitamin D deficiency is common among HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers in Pune, India, but not associated with mother-to-child HIV transmission

Post Date: 
2012-10-01
Publication: 
HIV Clinical Trials
Country: 
A recent report from Tanzania demonstrated an increased risk of being HIV infected or of dying at birth among children born to breastfeeding mothers with low baseline vitamin D levels. We conducted a nested case-control study among HIV-infected pregnant women in western India to confirm the...

High rates of all-cause and gastroenteritis-related hospitalization morbidity and mortality among HIV-exposed Indian infants

Post Date: 
2011-07-15
Publication: 
BMC Infectious Diseases
Country: 
Background: HIV-infected and HIV-exposed, uninfected infants experience a high burden of infectious morbidity and mortality. Hospitalization is an important metric for morbidity and is associated with high mortality, yet, little is known about rates and causes of hospitalization among these infants...

Cost-effectiveness of new WHO recommendations for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a resource-limited setting

Post Date: 
2011-05-15
Publication: 
AIDS
Country: 
Objective : Nigeria has high rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission. We sought to determine whether new WHO recommendations for long-course antiretroviral therapy (ART) prophylaxis are cost-effective for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV compared to short-course...

Twelve month follow-up of the SWEN randomized controlled trials: Differential impact of extended-dose nevirapine on mother-to-child transmission and infant death by maternal CD4 cell count

Post Date: 
2011-03-27
Publication: 
AIDS Care
Objectives: We previously reported combined analysis of 6-week and 6-month endpoints of three randomized controlled trials [Six Week Extended Dose Nevirapine (SWEN) trials] that compared extended-dose nevirapine through 6 weeks of age to single-dose nevirapine to prevent HIV transmission via...

Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomized controlled trials

Post Date: 
2009-07-26
Publication: 
The Lancet
Background: UNICEF/WHO recommends that infants born to HIV-infected mothers who do not have access to acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable, and safe replacement feeding should be exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months. The aim of three trials in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda was to...

Nevirapine resistance and breast-milk HIV transmission: effects of single and extended-dose nevirapine prophylaxis in subtype C HIV-infected infants

Post Date: 
2009-01-01
Publication: 
PLOS One
Country: 
Background: Daily nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to HIV-exposed infants significantly reduces breast-milk HIV transmission. We assessed NVP-resistance in Indian infants enrolled in the “six-week extended-dose nevirapine” (SWEN) trial who received single-dose NVP (SD-NVP) or SWEN for prevention of...

Modeling maternal infant HIV transmission in the presence of breast-feeding with an imperfect test

Post Date: 
2007-12-15
Publication: 
Biometrics
Country: 
An important public health question is to determine the probabilities of perinatal HIV transmission and when it occurs, whether antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum through breastfeeding. However, this is a difficult problem because the presence of HIV infection in an infant can only be...

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV among women who chose not to exclusively breastfeed their infants in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2007-08-15
Publication: 
Indian Journal of Medical Research
Country: 
Background and Objective: The percentage of HIV cases attributed to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has increased several fold in recent years. No reports are available on HIV MTCT rates among HIV-infected choosing not be exclusively breastfeed their infants in India. We examined HIV MTCT rates...

Making the choice: the translation of global HIV and infant feeding policy to local practice among mothers in Pune, India

Post Date: 
2005-04-15
Publication: 
The Journal of Nutrition
Country: 
In 2003, India had over 5.1 million infected individuals living with HIV/AIDS. The percentage of all HIV cases attributed to perinatal transmission has been increasing steadily from 0.33% of total cases in 1999 to 2.80% in 2004. Recent statistics indicate that over 130,000 infants have been...