Publications - Maternal and child health

Intestinal barrier dysfunction and microbial translocation in HIV-infected pregnant women is associated with preterm birth

Post Date: 
2018-03-24
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Clinical Infectious Diseases: Select immune markers can identify women at higher risk for pre-term birth in HIV-1-infected populations; modulating gut barrier integrity and microbial translocation may have an effect.

Secondhand smoke exposure and validity of self-report in low-income women and children in India

Post Date: 
2018-01-10
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Pediatrics
Pediatrics: Dr. Jessica Elf and colleagues evaluated the validity of standard self-reported measures for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among women and children in urban India.

Maternal syphilis: An independent risk factor for mother to infant human immunodeficiency virus transmission

Post Date: 
2017-06-15
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Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Abstract Syphilis is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus acquisition and sexual transmission; we examined impact on human immunodeficiency virus mother-to-child transmission among mother-infant pairs enrolled in the India Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine study. Maternal syphilis...

Efficacy of six-week extended-dose nevirapine varies by infant birth weight with greatest relative efficacy in low birth weight infants

Post Date: 
2016-09-30
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PLOS One
Low birth weight (LBW), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as birth weight less than 2500 g, is a significant public health issue in resource-limited settings, particularly in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia where the estimated annual incidence is 14% and 28–31%, respectively, and the...

The availability of emergency obstetric care in the context of the JSY cash transfer programme in Madhya Pradesh, India

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2016-05-18
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BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Abstract Background: Since 2005, India has implemented a national cash transfer programme, the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), which provides women a cash transfer upon giving birth in an existing public facility. This has resulted in a steep rise in facility births across the country. The early...

Assessment of the quality of clinical documentation in India's JSY cash transfer program for facility births in Madhya Pradesh

Post Date: 
2016-02-15
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International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Abstract Objective: To gain insight into the quality of care in facilities implementing the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) cash transfer program in Madhya Pradesh, India, by reviewing the level of documentation in the clinical records of women who delivered. Methods: The present retrospective,...

Low Vitamin-D levels combined with PKP3-SIGIRR-TMEM16J host variants is strongly associated with tuberculosis and death in HIV-infected and -exposed infants

Post Date: 
2016-02-12
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PLOS One
Background: This study examined the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and specific host genetic variants that affect vitamin D levels or its effects on immune function, with the risk of TB or mortality in children. Methods: A case-cohort sample of 466 South African infants enrolled in P1041 trial...

TLR2-modulating lipoproteins of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex enhance the HIV infectivity of CD4+ T cells

Post Date: 
2016-01-25
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PLoS One
Abstract Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis accelerates progression from HIV to AIDS. Our previous studies showed that M. tuberculosis complex, unlike M. smegmatis, enhances TLR2-dependent susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to HIV. The M. tuberculosis complex produces multiple TLR2-...

Toward earlier inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in TB drug trials: consensus statements from an International Expert Panel

Post Date: 
2016-01-04
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Clinical Infectious Diseases
Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15–44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials...

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding breastfeeding in postpartum mothers at a tertiary care institute during a public health awareness campaign

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2015-10-09
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International Journal of Health Sciences
Background: Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant...

Soluble CD14: An independent biomarker for risk of HIV mother-to-child transmission in setting of pre- and post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis

Post Date: 
2015-10-06
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The Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elevated soluble CD14 (sCD14) concentrations, a marker of monocyte activation, predicts adverse outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. To examine the association of sCD14 concentrations with the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, we nested a case-control...

Mother and child both matter: reconceptualizing the prevention of mother-to-child transmission care continuum

Post Date: 
2015-09-08
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Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Purpose of review: To propose a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) care continuum that defines the programmatic steps necessary to provide HIV care to the HIV-infected pregnant woman and her infant during the risk period for HIV transmission. Recent findings: There are several...

Availability and distribution of safe abortion services in rural areas: a facility assessment study in Madhya Pradesh, India

Post Date: 
2015-03-20
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Global Health Action
Abstract Background: Unsafe abortion contributes to a significant portion of maternal mortality in India. Access to safe abortion care is known to reduce maternal mortality. Availability and distribution of abortion care facilities can influence women's access to these services, especially in rural...

Vitamin D deficiency and risk of postpartum tuberculosis among HIV-infected breastfeeding mothers in India

Post Date: 
2015-03-15
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International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Some studies have associated low vitamin D levels with the risk of tuberculosis (TB), but its association in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected mothers in a TB-endemic region has not been well studied. We conducted a nested 1:2 case-control study among HIV-infected mothers in western India...

What tuberculosis means for maternal health

Post Date: 
2015-03-04
Mrs. Kumar [not her real name] was diagnosed with TB 18 years ago, during her first pregnancy, which ended in miscarriage. She then became depressed and side effects from the TB medications caused her difficulty eating. Three years later, during her second pregnancy, she and her husband were...

Inequalities in institutional delivery uptake and maternal mortality reduction in the context of cash incentive program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: Results from nine states in India

Post Date: 
2014-12-15
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Social Science and Medicine
Abstract Proportion of women giving birth in health institutions has increased sharply in India since the introduction of cash incentive program, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) in 2005. JSY was intended to benefit disadvantaged population who had poor access to institutional care for childbirth and...

Impact of maternal hepatitis B virus coinfection on mother-to-child transmission of HIV

Post Date: 
2014-07-15
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HIV Medicine
Objectives: Despite high hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemicity in various resource-limited settings (RLSs), the impact of maternal HIV/HBV coinfection on infant health outcomes has not been defined. We aimed to assess the prevalence of HBV coinfection among HIV-infected pregnant women and its impact...

Quality of obstetric referral services in India's JSY cash transfer programme for institutional births: a study from Madhya Pradesh province

Post Date: 
2014-05-08
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PLoS One
Abstract Background: India launched JSY cash transfer programme to increase access to emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) by incentivising in-facility births. This increased in-facility births from 30%in 2005 to 73% in 2012 however, decline in maternal mortality follows a secular trend...

Maternal pneumococcal capsular IgG antibodies and transplacental transfer are lower in South Asian HIV-infected mother-infant pairs

Post Date: 
2014-03-14
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Vaccine
Background: Our understanding of the mother-to-child transfer of serotype-specific pneumococcal antibodies is limited in non-immunized, HIV-positive women. Methods: We compared geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean transplacental cord:maternal ratios (GMRs) and proportions...

India's conditional cash transfer programme (the JSY) to promote institutional birth: Is there an association between institutional birth proportion and maternal mortality?

Post Date: 
2013-06-27
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PLoS One
Abstract Background: India accounts for 19% of global maternal deaths, three-quarters of which come from nine states. In 2005, India launched a conditional cash transfer (CCT) programme, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR) through promotion of institutional births...

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